The Relationship Between Gelatin Sponge Preparation Methods and the Incidence of Intrauterine Synechia Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage
To evaluate the relationship between gelatin sponge preparation methods and the incidence of intrauterine synechia following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH).
Materials and Methods
In a retrospective monocentric study, we used data from 20 consecutive UAE procedures (19 patients) for PPH, performed in 2007–2016, in which gelatin sponge had been used. The gelatin sponge was processed either into a slurry by pumping it back and forth about 10 times through two syringes connected to a three-way stopcock or into pledgets using a scalpel and small scissors to obtain pieces approximately 2 × 2 × 2 mm in size. Patient information was obtained from medical records, and the data were compared between patients treated with the slurry (n = 7) or pledgets (n = 13) forms. Due to the lack of follow-up data and hysterectomy after UAE, the sample size was 6 and 12 because 1 patient with 2 procedures was excluded.
The rate of intrauterine synechia was significantly higher in the slurry group (5/6, 83.3%) than that in the pledgets group (0/12, 0%; P < 0.001). In contrast, there were no significant differences in population characteristics, such as the incidence of placenta accreta, non-placental diseases, and severity of shock (DIC score, shock index, or blood loss) between the groups.
Although non-randomization and small sample size were the two main limitations, our observations suggest that UAE using gelatin sponge slurry may be associated with a high incidence of intrauterine synechia compared to UAE using pledgets.
KeywordsUterine arterial embolization Intrauterine synechia Postpartum hemorrhage Gelatin sponge preparation methods Pledgets Slurry
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Consent for Publication
Consent for publication was obtained for every individual person’s data included in the study.
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