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CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 165–168 | Cite as

Inferior Vena Cava Filters in the Asymptomatic Chronically Occluded Cava: To Remove or Not Remove?

  • Warren ClementsEmail author
Review Venous Interventions
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Venous Interventions

Abstract

Risks of IVC filter insertion are numerous but include IVC stenosis or thrombosis and may result in caval occlusion. Acute IVC occlusion is almost always symptomatic, and treatment can be aggressive such as catheter-directed thrombolysis or conservative such as anticoagulation. The more challenging cohort of patients is those where there has been chronic complete occlusion of the IVC without symptoms, sometimes only identified at the time of routine filter retrieval. We explore the available evidence and discuss different management approaches in this circumstance ranging from aggressive to conservative. However, given that the overall incidence of filter-related complications is very low, at this stage we find no compelling evidence to support aggressive management without symptoms.

Keywords

IVC filter Central venous occlusion 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Research without human participants was performed in accordance with our local HREC guidelines and the Helsinki Declaration.

Consent for Publication

Not applicable.

Availability of Data and Materials

Not applicable.

Ethical Standard

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Alfred HealthAlfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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