CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 121–129 | Cite as

Feasibility of Helical I-125 Seed Implant in the Portal Vein

  • Chen Wang
  • Wansheng Wang
  • Jian Shen
  • Baosheng Ren
  • Xiaoli ZhuEmail author
  • Caifang NiEmail author
Laboratory Investigation



To evaluate the feasibility of helical iodine-125 (I-125) seed portal vein implantation.

Materials and Methods

Helical I-125 seed implants were placed into the portal vein of healthy pigs through the transjugular (n = 3) or percutaneous transhepatic (n = 3) route. Six pigs received follow-up at 9 weeks after implantation. Blood tests were performed preimplantation, and at 1 and 9 weeks after implantation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with CT (SPECT-CT) were acquired after implantation. Post-implantation CT was imported to the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose verification. At 9 weeks after implantation, another CT was performed before histopathological examination.


All implantations were successful, and the helical implants were fixed to the portal vein. CT showed no implant migration or portal vein thrombosis. The average dose to 90% of the target volume calculated from TPS was 68.4 Gy. SPECT-CT revealed an irregular isodose around the implant, in which the hottest spot was near the central portal vein lumen. All pigs were in good condition at the 9-week follow-up. Histopathology studies confirmed no portal vein thrombosis. Pigs showed no signs of bleeding, necrosis, or perforation of the peripheral tissue or organs. Intimal hyperplasia was observed at the two ends of the implant. A mild inflammatory response was detected in the bile duct and adjacent liver tissues, yet there was no apparent inflammation of the hepatic arteries.


The helical I-125 seed implants can be inserted into the portal veins of healthy pigs.


Portal vein Tumor thrombus Endovascular brachytherapy Helical I-125 seed implants 





Contrast-enhanced computed tomography


Single-photon emission computed tomography


Treatment planning system


Dose to 90% of the target volume


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Portal vein tumor thrombus


Main portal vein tumor thrombus


Transarterial chemoembolization


External beam radiotherapy






Dose volume histogram


Analysis of variance


Planning target volume



This study was supported by Jiangsu Provincial Medical Talent funding (Grant Number ZDRCA2016038).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Suzhou University in China. The Experimental Animal Center of Suzhou University provided six pigs that were single-housed. Food intake was monitored, and the animals were housed according to the standard procedures. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Interventional Radiology, First Affiliated HospitalSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Third Affiliated HospitalShihezi UniversityShiheziChina
  3. 3.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe Affiliated Changzhou NO.2 People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityChangzhouChina

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