Surgical fistulas were first described over 50 years ago and have revolutionized the outlook for millions of dialysis-dependent patients. Despite many developments, results remain sub-optimal with high rates of primary failure and re-intervention to maintain patency. Surgical fistulas are known to fail in part due to intimal hyperplasia leading to stenosis, and vessel manipulation during anastomosis creation can be contributory. New technology is emerging that allows the endovascular creation of fistulas with minimal vessel trauma and the initial results demonstrate encouraging outcomes with high technical success rates, low re-intervention, and failure rates and good usability for hemodialysis. Two such device systems are currently available, and here, we provide an overview of the current global status of endoAVF, patient selection criteria, trial results, technical aspects, re-interventions, and outlook for the future.
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Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Robert G Jones: Speaker/Consultancy for TVA. Robert A Morgan: Speaker for TVA, Penumbra, and Medtronic.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article: Does not apply.
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