Intramuscular Venous Malformations of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Indications and Outcomes of Sclerotherapy
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Multiple treatment options have been described for intramuscular venous malformations (VMs) of the limbs. At the current time, there are no clear management guidelines. The aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of sclerotherapy in this type of VMs.
Materials and Methods
This is a single-center, retrospective review of patients treated for extremity intramuscular VMs between January 2013 and June 2017. The primary outcomes were the improvement of symptoms self-assessed by questionnaires, and the reduction in VM size measured by magnetic resonance (MRI).
Sclerotherapy was performed in 81 patients with extremity intramuscular VMs. The sclerosing agent was ethanol in 46 cases (56.8%), polidocanol in 27 cases (33.3%), a combination of both in 8 cases (9.9%). The mean follow-up was 26 months (range 3–52). Overall quality of life was improved in 62 patients (76.5%). The postoperative MRI showed a minimum change of VM size in 68 patients (83.9%). A major complication (peripheral nerve injury) was observed in 1 case (1.2% of patients, 0.5% of procedures). Minor complications occurred in 9 cases (11.1% of patients, 4.1% of procedures).
Sclerotherapy is a low-invasive, effective and safe treatment for intramuscular VMs of the extremities. It induces a significant improvement in symptoms, also when the VM size is unchanged.
Level of Evidence
Level 4, Case Series.
KeywordsVenous malformations Intramuscular Sclerotherapy
We thank Dr Magenta Alessandra for the critical reading of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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