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CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 41, Issue 10, pp 1505–1512 | Cite as

Intramuscular Venous Malformations of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Indications and Outcomes of Sclerotherapy

  • Giuseppe BianchiniEmail author
  • Daniele Camilli
  • Sergio Furgiuele
Clinical Investigation
  • 276 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Multiple treatment options have been described for intramuscular venous malformations (VMs) of the limbs. At the current time, there are no clear management guidelines. The aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of sclerotherapy in this type of VMs.

Materials and Methods

This is a single-center, retrospective review of patients treated for extremity intramuscular VMs between January 2013 and June 2017. The primary outcomes were the improvement of symptoms self-assessed by questionnaires, and the reduction in VM size measured by magnetic resonance (MRI).

Results

Sclerotherapy was performed in 81 patients with extremity intramuscular VMs. The sclerosing agent was ethanol in 46 cases (56.8%), polidocanol in 27 cases (33.3%), a combination of both in 8 cases (9.9%). The mean follow-up was 26 months (range 3–52). Overall quality of life was improved in 62 patients (76.5%). The postoperative MRI showed a minimum change of VM size in 68 patients (83.9%). A major complication (peripheral nerve injury) was observed in 1 case (1.2% of patients, 0.5% of procedures). Minor complications occurred in 9 cases (11.1% of patients, 4.1% of procedures).

Conclusions

Sclerotherapy is a low-invasive, effective and safe treatment for intramuscular VMs of the extremities. It induces a significant improvement in symptoms, also when the VM size is unchanged.

Level of Evidence

Level 4, Case Series.

Keywords

Venous malformations Intramuscular Sclerotherapy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr Magenta Alessandra for the critical reading of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vascular Surgery, Center of Vascular AnomaliesIstituto Dermopatico dell’ImmacolataRomeItaly

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