A Review of Adverse Events Related to Prostatic Artery Embolization for Treatment of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Due to BPH
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Minimally invasive procedures have gained great importance among the treatments for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) due to their low morbidity. Prostate artery embolization has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for patients with large volume BPH, not suited for surgery.
Materials and Methods
Low adverse events rates have been reported following prostate artery embolization and may include dysuria, urinary infection, hematuria, hematospermia, acute urinary retention and rectal bleeding. Although most complaints are reported as side effects, complications can also be superimposed.
The prostate gland is the most common source of complaints following PAE, where the inflammatory process can create a large variety of localized symptoms. Periprostatic organs and structures such as bladder, rectum, penis, seminal vesicle, pelvis, bones and skin may be damaged by nontarget embolization, especially due to the misidentification of the normal vascular anatomy and variants or due to inadvertent embolic reflux. Radiodermatitis may also happen in case of small vessel size, atherosclerosis, the learning curve and long procedure or fluoroscopy times.
Regarding safety, it is pivotal to understand the pathophysiology of adverse events following PAE and their standardized reporting. The aim of this article is to discuss adverse events, their management and to review the current literature.
KeywordsProstatic hyperplasia Embolization Inflammation Adverse effect Complication Classification
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors, and formal consent is not required.
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