CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 1891–1898 | Cite as

Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation Using a New Electrode with an Electromagnetic Position Sensor for Hepatic Tumors Difficult to Place an Electrode: A Preliminary Clinical Study

  • Tae Wook Kang
  • Min Woo LeeEmail author
  • Kyoung Doo Song
  • Hyunchul Rhim
  • Hyo Keun Lim
  • Wonseok Kang
  • Kyunga Kim
Clinical Investigation



To evaluate whether a new electrode embedded with an electromagnetic position sensor (EMPS) improves the technical feasibility of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatic tumors difficult to place an electrode under ultrasonography (US) guidance and to assess short-term therapeutic efficacy and safety.

Materials and Methods

This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between January 2015 and December 2016, 10 patients (7 men and 3 women; age range 52–75 years) with a single hepatic tumor (median 1.4 cm; range 1.1–1.8 cm) difficult to place an electrode under US guidance were enrolled. The technical feasibility of targeting and overlapping ablation during the RFA procedure was graded using a four-point scale and analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test according to the use of EMPS. In addition, the rates of technical success, local tumor progression (LTP), and major complications were assessed.


The use of the new RF electrode with EMPS significantly improved the technical feasibility of targeting and overlapping ablation (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). After treatment, the technical success rate was 100%. LTP was not found in any patient during the follow-up period (median 8 months; range 4–22 months). No major procedure-related complications occurred.


The technical feasibility of percutaneous RFA improves with the use of this RF electrode embedded with an EMPS. Short-term therapeutic efficacy and safety after RFA using the electrode were promising in patients with hepatic tumors difficult to place an electrode under US guidance.


Liver Ultrasonography Radiofrequency ablation Electromagnetic position sensor Needle tracking 



Computed tomography




Electromagnetic position sensor


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Local tumor progression


Magnetic resonance imaging


Radiofrequency ablation



The authors thank Mr. Joon Hyok Lee (STARmed, Goyang, South Korea) for his technical assistance.

Financial Support

Financial support and the investigational RF ablation device for this study were provided by STARmed (Goyang, Korea). However, the authors had complete control of the data and information submitted for publication, which was unbiased by the industry.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (WMV 7289 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tae Wook Kang
    • 1
  • Min Woo Lee
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kyoung Doo Song
    • 1
  • Hyunchul Rhim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hyo Keun Lim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wonseok Kang
    • 3
  • Kyunga Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHSTSungkyunkwan UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Statistics and Data Center, Samsung Biomedical Research InstituteSamsung Medical CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea

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