A Novel Method of Adrenal Venous Sampling via an Antecubital Approach
Currently, almost all adrenal venous sampling (AVS) procedures are performed by femoral vein access. The purpose of this study was to establish the technique of AVS via an antecubital approach and evaluate its safety and feasibility.
Materials and Methods
From January 2012 to June 2015, 194 consecutive patients diagnosed as primary aldosteronism underwent AVS via an antecubital approach without ACTH simulation. Catheters used for bilateral adrenal cannulations were recorded. The success rate of bilateral adrenal sampling, operation time, fluoroscopy time, dosage of contrast, and incidence of complications were calculated.
A 5F MPA1 catheter was first used to attempt right adrenal cannulation in all patients. Cannulation of the right adrenal vein was successfully performed in 164 (84.5%) patients. The 5F JR5, Cobra2, and TIG catheters were the ultimate catheters for right adrenal cannulation in 16 (8.2%), 5 (2.6%), and 9 (4.6%) patients, respectively. For left adrenal cannulation, JR5 and Cobra2 catheters were used in 19 (9.8%) and 10 (5.2%) patients, respectively, while only TIG catheters were used in the remaining 165 (85.1%) patients. The rate of successful adrenal sampling on the right, left, and bilateral sides was 91.8%, 93.3%, and 87.6%, respectively. The mean time of operation was (16.3 ± 4.3) minutes, mean fluoroscopy time was (4.7 ± 1.3) minutes, and the mean use of contrast was (14.3 ± 4.7) ml. The incidence of adrenal hematoma was 1.0%.
This study showed that AVS via an antecubital approach was safe and feasible, with a high rate of successful sampling.
KeywordsAdrenal venous sampling Hyperaldosteronism Phlebography Angiography Antecubital approach
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Xiongjing Jiang, Hui Dong, Meng Peng, Wuqiang Che, Yubao Zou, Lei Song, Huimin Zhang, Haiying Wu declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The institutional review board at our institution approved this retrospective study. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
Does not apply.