Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

  • Carlos J. Guevara
  • Guillermo Gonzalez-Araiza
  • Seung K. Kim
  • Elizabeth Sheybani
  • Michael D. Darcy
Clinical Investigation

Abstract

Purpose

Venous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.

Results

Seventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.

Conclusion

Sclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

Keywords

Venous malformation Sclerotherapy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos J. Guevara
    • 1
  • Guillermo Gonzalez-Araiza
    • 1
  • Seung K. Kim
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Sheybani
    • 1
  • Michael D. Darcy
    • 1
  1. 1.Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

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