CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 39, Issue 6, pp 916–919 | Cite as

Indwelling Stent Embedded with Light-Emitting Diodes for Photodynamic Therapy of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

  • Timothy M. Baran
  • Oleg Mironov
  • Ashwani K. SharmaEmail author
  • Thomas H. Foster
Work In Progress



We describe the design and preliminary characterization of a stent incorporating light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant biliary obstruction.


A prototype was constructed with red (640 nm) LEDs embedded in a 14.5 French polyurethane tube. The device was evaluated for optical power and subjected to physical and electrical tests. PDT-induced reactive oxygen species were imaged in a gel phantom.


The stent functioned at a 2.5-cm bend radius and illuminated for 6 months in saline. No stray currents were detected, and it was cool after 30 minutes of operation. Optical power of 5–15 mW is applicable to PDT. Imaging of a reactive oxygen indicator showed LED-stent activation of photosensitizer.


The results motivate biological testing and design optimization.


Catheter drainage Interventional oncology Bileduct Biliary Cancer 



This work was supported by a Resident Research Grant awarded to Author #2 from the SIR Foundation. Author #4 is an inventor on a patent application that has been submitted for the stent design.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The other authors have no potential conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy M. Baran
    • 1
  • Oleg Mironov
    • 2
  • Ashwani K. Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thomas H. Foster
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Imaging SciencesUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.The Joint Department of Medical ImagingUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada

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