Indwelling Stent Embedded with Light-Emitting Diodes for Photodynamic Therapy of Malignant Biliary Obstruction
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We describe the design and preliminary characterization of a stent incorporating light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant biliary obstruction.
A prototype was constructed with red (640 nm) LEDs embedded in a 14.5 French polyurethane tube. The device was evaluated for optical power and subjected to physical and electrical tests. PDT-induced reactive oxygen species were imaged in a gel phantom.
The stent functioned at a 2.5-cm bend radius and illuminated for 6 months in saline. No stray currents were detected, and it was cool after 30 minutes of operation. Optical power of 5–15 mW is applicable to PDT. Imaging of a reactive oxygen indicator showed LED-stent activation of photosensitizer.
The results motivate biological testing and design optimization.
KeywordsCatheter drainage Interventional oncology Bileduct Biliary Cancer
This work was supported by a Resident Research Grant awarded to Author #2 from the SIR Foundation. Author #4 is an inventor on a patent application that has been submitted for the stent design.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The other authors have no potential conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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