Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications

  • Fei Sun
  • Verónica Crisóstomo
  • Claudia Báez-Díaz
  • Francisco M. Sánchez


Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia Prostatic artery embolization Lower urinary tract symptoms Pathology 



This work was not supported by any grants.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare that they have no Conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei Sun
    • 1
  • Verónica Crisóstomo
    • 1
  • Claudia Báez-Díaz
    • 1
  • Francisco M. Sánchez
    • 1
  1. 1.Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery CentreCáceresSpain

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