CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1218–1230 | Cite as

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Hepatic Arteriography in Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Performance Depicting Tumors and Tumor Feeders

  • In Joon Lee
  • Jin Wook ChungEmail author
  • Yong Hu Yin
  • Hyo-Cheol Kim
  • Young Il Kim
  • Hwan Jun Jae
  • Jae Hyung Park
Clinical Investigation



This study was designed to analyze retrospectively the performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) hepatic arteriography in depicting tumors and their feeders and to investigate the related determining factors in chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).


Eighty-six patients with 142 tumors satisfying the imaging diagnosis criteria of HCC were included in this study. The performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography for chemoembolization per tumor and per patient was evaluated using maximum intensity projection images alone (MIP analysis) or MIP combined with multiplanar reformation images (MIP + MPR analysis) regarding the following three aspects: tumor depiction, confidence of tumor feeder detection, and trackability of tumor feeders. Tumor size, tumor enhancement, tumor location, number of feeders, diaphragmatic motion, portal vein enhancement, and hepatic artery to parenchyma enhancement ratio were regarded as potential determining factors.


Tumors were depicted in 125 (88.0 %) and 142 tumors (100 %) on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis, respectively. Imaging performances on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis were good enough to perform subsegmental chemoembolization without additional angiographic investigation in 88 (62.0 %) and 128 tumors (90.1 %) on per-tumor basis and in 43 (50 %) and 73 (84.9 %) on per-patient basis, respectively. Significant determining factors for performance in MIP + MPR analysis on per tumor basis were tumor size (p = 0.030), tumor enhancement (0.005), tumor location (p = 0.001), and diaphragmatic motion (p < 0.001).


CBCT hepatic arteriography provided sufficient information for subsegmental chemoembolization by depicting tumors and their feeders in the vast majority of patients. Combined analysis of MIP and MPR images was essential to enhance the performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography.


C-arm CT Cone-beam CT Hepatic arteriography Chemoembolization 



This research was supported by the Core Medical Device R & D Program (10043111, 10043118) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Statement of Human Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Statement of Informed Consent

This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • In Joon Lee
    • 1
  • Jin Wook Chung
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yong Hu Yin
    • 2
  • Hyo-Cheol Kim
    • 2
  • Young Il Kim
    • 2
  • Hwan Jun Jae
    • 2
  • Jae Hyung Park
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNational Cancer CenterGoyang-siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of RadiologySeoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea

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