CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 665–671 | Cite as

Efficacy and Safety of Endovascular Intervention for the Management of Primary Entire-Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

  • Qingqiao ZhangEmail author
  • Qianxin Huang
  • Bin Shen
  • Jingmin Sun
  • Xiaolong Wang
  • Hongtao Liu
Clinical Investigation



This study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endovascular intervention for the treatment of primary entire-inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion.


Endovascular interventions were performed in six patients for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion. IVC and hepatic venography were performed via the jugular and femoral veins. Balloon angioplasty was used to revascularize the hepatic vein and IVC and a stent was placed in the IVC to maintain patency. Postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then annually, to monitor the patency of the hepatic vein and IVC.


The IVC and one or two hepatic veins were successfully revascularized in five patients. Revascularization was successful in the right and left hepatic veins in one patient; however, IVC patency could not be established in this patient. Eleven Z-type, self-expanding stents were placed into the IVCs of five patients (three stents in two patients, two stents in two patients, and one stent in one patient). There were no instances of postoperative bleeding or mortality. Follow-up was conducted for 18–90 months (42.8 ± 26.5 months). None of the five patients suffered restenosis of the IVC or hepatic veins. However, there was one of the six cases of right hepatic vein restenosis at 18 months postprocedure that was revascularized after a second balloon dilatation.


Endovascular intervention is safe and efficacious for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion.


Inferior vena cava Angioplasty Stent Endovascular intervention 



This study was funded by Jiangsu Provincial Special Program of Medical Science (No. BL2014030).

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingqiao Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qianxin Huang
    • 1
  • Bin Shen
    • 1
  • Jingmin Sun
    • 1
  • Xiaolong Wang
    • 1
  • Hongtao Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular SurgeryThe Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical CollegeXuzhouChina

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