CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 898–905 | Cite as

Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results

  • Antoine HakimeEmail author
  • Frederic Deschamps
  • Enio Garcia Marques De Carvalho
  • Ali Barah
  • Anne Auperin
  • Thierry De Baere
Clinical Investigation



This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies.


We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and “in-plane” or “out-of-plane” needle approach.


Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5–60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase.


Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to determine needle tip position and allows fast and accurate needle placement in targeted liver nodules.


Procedure Time Focal Liver Lesion Electromagnetic Tracking Needle Path Freehand Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antoine Hakime
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frederic Deschamps
    • 1
  • Enio Garcia Marques De Carvalho
    • 1
  • Ali Barah
    • 1
  • Anne Auperin
    • 1
  • Thierry De Baere
    • 1
  1. 1.Gustave Roussy InstituteVillejuifFrance

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