Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations
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To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient.
This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success.
Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients.
Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.
KeywordsArteriovenous Embolization Vascular malformations
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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