CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 820–825 | Cite as

Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

  • Edwin van der LindenEmail author
  • Jary M. van Baalen
  • Peter M. T. Pattynama
Clinical Investigation



To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient.


This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success.


Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients.


Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.


Arteriovenous Embolization Vascular malformations 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin van der Linden
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jary M. van Baalen
    • 2
  • Peter M. T. Pattynama
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMedical Center HaaglandenDen HaagThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyErasmus University Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands

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