Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model
This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas.
Three groups of two female swine (58–64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy.
All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean ± SD: 252.7 ± 27.8 × 102/μl and 0.15 ± 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 ± 2169.2 U/l and 130 ± 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels.
Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.
KeywordsPancreatic artery Transcatheter arterial embolization N-Butyl cyanoacrylate Cone beam CT Swine Pancreatitis
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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