CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 691–704 | Cite as

Pediatric Vascular Malformations: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and the Role of Interventional Radiology

  • Anne Marie Cahill
  • Els Louisa Francine Nijs


The Mulliken and Glowacki classification (1982) differentiated vascular anomalies into two groups based on their endothelial characteristics: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Vascular anomalies are localized defects of the vasculature that affect a limited number of vessels in a restricted area of the body. These defects are secondary to errors in vascular morphogenesis. Depending on the type of vessel involved, the vascular malformation group was subdivided into high-flow (such as arteriovenous malformation and arteriovenous fistula) and low-flow lesions (such as venous and lymphatic malformations). Depending on the type of lesion, the location and degree of involvement and the clinical effect, different types of treatment would be required. For the purpose of this review, we concentrate solely on vascular malformations: the clinical features, genetics, diagnosis, and current treatment options.


Pediatric Paediatric interventions Embolization/embolisation Embolotherapy Sclerotherapy Vascular malformations 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Marie Cahill
    • 1
  • Els Louisa Francine Nijs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional RadiologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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