CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 861–876 | Cite as

Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

  • Sarfraz Ahmed NazirEmail author
  • Arul Ganeshan
  • Sheraz Nazir
  • Raman Uberoi


Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.


Deep venous thrombosis Endovascular Catheter-directed thrombolysis Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy Inferior vena cava filters 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarfraz Ahmed Nazir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arul Ganeshan
    • 1
  • Sheraz Nazir
    • 2
  • Raman Uberoi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyJohn Radcliffe HospitalOxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of MedicineJohn Radcliffe HospitalOxford UK

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