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Endovascular Management of Acute Bleeding Arterioenteric Fistulas

  • Henrik LeonhardtEmail author
  • Stefan Mellander
  • Johan Snygg
  • Lars Lönn
Clinical Investigation

Abstract

The objective of this study was to review the outcome of endovascular transcatheter repair of emergent arterioenteric fistulas. Cases of abdominal arterioenteric fistulas (defined as a fistula between a major artery and the small intestine or colon, thus not the esophagus or stomach), diagnosed over the 3-year period between December 2002 and December 2005 at our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients with severe enteric bleeding underwent angiography and endovascular repair. Four presented primary arterioenteric fistulas, and one presented a secondary aortoenteric fistula. All had massive persistent bleeding with hypotension despite volume substitution and transfusion by the time of endovascular management. Outcome after treatment of these patients was investigated for major procedure-related complications, recurrence, reintervention, morbidity, and mortality. Mean follow-up time was 3 months (range, 1–6 months). All massive bleeding was controlled by occlusive balloon catheters. Four fistulas were successfully sealed with stent-grafts, resulting in a technical success rate of 80%. One patient was circulatory stabilized by endovascular management but needed immediate further open surgery. There were no procedure-related major complications. Mean hospital stay after the initial endovascular intervention was 19 days. Rebleeding occurred in four patients (80%) after a free interval of 2 weeks or longer. During the follow-up period three patients needed reintervention. The in-hospital mortality was 20% and the 30-day mortality was 40%. The midterm outcome was poor, due to comorbidities or rebleeding, with a mortality of 80% within 6 months. In conclusion, endovascular repair is an efficient and safe method to stabilize patients with life-threatening bleeding arterioenteric fistulas in the emergent episode. However, in this group of patients with severe comorbidities, the risk of rebleeding is high and further intervention must be considered. Patients with cancer may only need treatment for the acute bleeding episode, and an endovascular approach has the advantage of low morbidity.

Keywords

Arterioenteric fistula Aortoenteric fistula Gastrointestinal bleeding Endovascular repair Endoprosthesis Stent-graft 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Dr. Lars Karlström (Sahlgrenska University Hospital S, Göteborg, Sweden) for performing the search of the Vascular Registry in Sweden.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Leonhardt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefan Mellander
    • 2
  • Johan Snygg
    • 3
  • Lars Lönn
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of RadiologySahlgrenska University Hospital SGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Vascular SurgerySahlgrenska University Hospital SGöteborgSweden
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologySahlgrenska University Hospital SGöteborgSweden
  4. 4.Faculty of Health Sciences, Radiology, RigshospitaletCopenhagen ØDenmark

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