CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 992–998 | Cite as

A Newly Developed Perfused Umbrella Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Evaluation Study in Bovine Liver

  • Philipp BrunersEmail author
  • Jochen Pfeffer
  • Rana M. Kazim
  • Rolf W. Günther
  • Thomas Schmitz-Rode
  • Andreas H. Mahnken
Laboratory Investigation


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed perfused monopolar radiofrequency (RF) probe with an umbrella-shaped array. A perfused umbrella-shaped monopolar RF probe based on a LeVeen electrode (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, MA, USA) with a 3-cm array diameter was developed. Five different configurations of this electrode were tested: (a) perfusion channel/endhole, (b) perfusion channel/endhole + sideholes, (c) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip, (d) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip + perfusion channel/endhole, and (e) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip + perfusion channel/endhole + sideholes. An unmodified LeVeen electrode served as a reference standard. RF ablations were performed in freshly excised bovine liver using a commercial monopolar RF system with a 200-W generator (RF 3000; Boston Scientific Corp.). Each electrode was tested 10 times applying the vendor’s recommended ablation protocol combined with the preinjection of 2 ml 0.9% saline. Volumes and shapes of the lesions were compared. Lesions generated with the original LeVeen electrode showed a mean volume of 12.74 ± 0.52 cm³. Removing parts of the insulation led to larger coagulation volumes (22.65 ± 2.12 cm³). Depending on the configuration, saline preinjection resulted in a further increase in coagulation volume (25.22 ± 3.37 to 31.28 ± 2.32 cm3). Besides lesion volume, the shape of the ablation zone was influenced by the configuration of the electrode used. We conclude that saline preinjection in combination with increasing the active tip length of the umbrella-shaped LeVeen RF probe allows the reliable ablation of larger volumes in comparison to the originally configured electrode.


Radiofrequency ablation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Bruners
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jochen Pfeffer
    • 1
  • Rana M. Kazim
    • 1
  • Rolf W. Günther
    • 2
  • Thomas Schmitz-Rode
    • 1
  • Andreas H. Mahnken
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical EngineeringAachenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyRWTH Aachen University HospitalAachenGermany

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