Treatment of Acute Aortic Type B Dissection with Stent-Grafts
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Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of endoluminal stent-grafts in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissections.
Methods: In five patients with acute aortic type B dissections, sealing of the primary intimal tear with an endoluminal stent-graft was attempted. Indication for treatment was aneurysm formation in two patients and persistent pain in three patients. One of the latter also had an unstable dissection flap compromising the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery. The distance from the intimal tear to the left subclavian artery was <0.5 cm in four patients, who had typical type B dissections. In one patient with an atypical dissection the distance from the primary tear to the left subclavian artery was 4 cm. This patient had no re-entry tear. Talent tube grafts (World Medical Manufacturing Cooperation, Sunrise, FL, USA) were used in all patients.
Results: Stent-graft insertion with sealing of the primary tear was successful in all patients. The proximal covered portion of the stent-graft was placed across the left subclavian artery in four patients (1× transposition of the left subclavian artery). Left arm perfusion was preserved via a subclavian steal phenomenon in the patients in whom the stent-graft covered the orifice of the left subclavian artery. The only procedural complication we observed was an asymptomatic segmental renal infarction in one patient. In the thoracic aorta thrombosis of the false aortic lumen occurred in all patients. In one patient the false lumen of the abdominal aorta thrombosed after 4 weeks; in the other three patients the status of the abdominal aorta remained unchanged compared with the situation prior to stent-graft insertion. As a late complication formation of a secondary aneurysm of the thoracic aorta was observed at the distal end of the stent-graft 3 months after the primary intervention. This aneurysm was treated by coaxial insertion of an additional stent-graft without complications.
Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment of acute type B aortic dissections seems to be an attractive alternative treatment to surgical repair. Thrombosis of the false lumen of the thoracic aorta can be induced if the primary tear is sealed with a stent-graft. This could protect the dissected thoracic aorta from delayed rupture.
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