Epidemiological Data and Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Insights From Tertiary Referral Hospitals in Latvia

  • Margarita PtasnukaEmail author
  • Arturs Ozolins
  • Zenons Narbuts
  • Arturs Truskovs
  • Maris Sperga
  • Haralds Plaudis
Original Scientific Report



Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) are rare, heterogeneous group which tend to rise in incidence. Epidemiological profile and outcomes of GEP-NEN may vary among countries. The aim of study was to provide baseline clinical and histopathological features of patients with GEP-NEN from tertiary referral hospitals in Latvia.


A retrospective study of patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of GEP-NEN treated between 2006 and 2018. Joinpoint regression modeling was used to estimate annual percentage change (APC) for incidence trends. Overall survival (OS) rate was obtained by Kaplan–Meier method.


In total, 205 patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 61.0 (IQR 52.0–70.5) years, 69.3% were females. The age-adjusted incidence per 100 000 inhabitants increased from 0.03 in 2006 to 0.67 in 2018 with APC of 24.1%, p < 0.005. The most common primary tumor site was pancreas (30.7%), followed by stomach (24.9%) and small intestine (20.5%). Non-functional tumors are present in 83.4%, while carcinoid syndrome in 7.8%. Stage IV metastatic disease was present in 27.8% tumors. The majority of patients (82%) received an operation with radical or palliative intent. The 1- and 3-year OS rate were 88.0% (95% CI 83.3–92.7) and 77.1% (95% CI 70.4–83.8), respectively. Increasing tumor grade, stage and the presence of distant metastases were associated with significantly worse OS.


Our study highlights increasing incidence of GEP-NEN in Latvia. The most common primary site was pancreas and surgery considered as main modality of treatment. Registry and long-term data collection are necessary to develop GEP-NEN management concept in Latvia.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Ptasnuka
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Arturs Ozolins
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zenons Narbuts
    • 1
    • 3
  • Arturs Truskovs
    • 1
  • Maris Sperga
    • 4
  • Haralds Plaudis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Riga Stradins UniversityRigaLatvia
  2. 2.Department of General and Emergency SurgeryRiga East Clinical University HospitalRigaLatvia
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryPauls Stradins Clinical University HospitalRigaLatvia
  4. 4.Department of Infectious PathologyPathology CenterRigaLatvia

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