Ultrasound Liver Map Technique for Laparoscopic Liver Resections
- 223 Downloads
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is reported as a safe procedure with potential advantages over open surgery albeit with inherent limitations, such as loss of haptic perception and spatial orientation. Ultrasound is considered the best tool to identify anatomic landmarks and the transection plane during liver surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of LLR performed with a standardized US guidance technique.
We have standardized a 4-step technique for ultrasound-guided LLR: (1) compose a 3-D mind map by studying relationships among lesions and surrounding anatomic structures, (2) sketch the map on the liver surface, (3) check, and (4) correct the transection plane in real time.
Between 01/2006 and 12/2016, 190 consecutive patients treated with US-guided LLR were analysed. The indications for LLR included malignant tumours in 148 patients (81.8%). The procedures were classified according to a difficulty scale. There were 18 major hepatectomies (9.9%), 80 anatomic bi- and monosegmentectomies (44.2%), and 101 non-anatomic resections (55.8%). Redo resection was performed in 17 patients (9.4%), and multiple liver resections were performed in 25 patients (24.7%). Median intraoperative blood loss was 100 ± 154 mL. Overall and major morbidity rates were 14.9% and 1.6%, respectively. Mortality was nil.
Ultrasound liver map technique enables planning and real-time guidance during laparoscopic liver resections.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 43148 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (MP4 53123 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (MP4 92486 kb)
- 3.Makuuchi M, Hasegawa H, Yamazaki S (1986) Ultrasonically guided subsegmentectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 161:346–350Google Scholar