Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501–1736 CE)

  • S-Ali Khodaie
  • Farzaneh Ghaffari
  • Arman Zargaran
  • Mohsen Naseri
Original Scientific Report



Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery.


This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah.

Results and Discussion

Safavid kings (1501–1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.



We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Hasan Mirsalehian (Assistant Professor, School of Dentistry, Shahed University) for sharing the photos of manuscripts of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. We are especially grateful to Dr. Zahra Bahaedin to cooperate in literary editing of the article.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S-Ali Khodaie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Farzaneh Ghaffari
    • 3
  • Arman Zargaran
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mohsen Naseri
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Faculty of MedicineShahed UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Diabetes Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  3. 3.School of Traditional MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Research Office for the History of Persian MedicineShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  6. 6.Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research CenterShahed UniversityTehranIran

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