Bellwether Procedures for Monitoring and Planning Essential Surgical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Caesarean Delivery, Laparotomy, and Treatment of Open Fractures
- 494 Downloads
Surgical conditions represent a significant proportion of the global burden of disease, and therefore, surgery is an essential component of health systems. Achieving universal health coverage requires effective monitoring of access to surgery. However, there is no widely accepted standard for the required capabilities of a first-level hospital. We aimed to determine whether a group of operations could be used to describe the delivery of essential surgical care.
We convened an expert panel to identify procedures that might indicate the presence of resources needed to treat an appropriate range of surgical conditions at first-level hospitals. Using data from the World Health Organization Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Global database, collected using the WHO Situational Analysis Tool (SAT), we analysed whether the ability to perform each of these procedures—which we term “bellwether procedures”—was associated with performing a full range of essential surgical procedures.
The ability to perform caesarean delivery, laparotomy, and treatment of open fracture was closely associated with performing all obstetric, general, basic, emergency, and orthopaedic procedures (p < 0.001) in the population that responded to the WHO SAT Survey. Procedures including cleft lip, cataract, and neonatal surgery did not correlate with performing the bellwether procedures.
Caesarean delivery, laparotomy, and treatment of open fractures should be standard procedures performed at first-level hospitals. With further validation in other populations, local managers and health ministries may find this useful as a benchmark for what first-level hospitals can and should be able to perform on a 24/7 basis in order to ensure delivery of emergency and essential surgical care to their population. Those procedures which did not correlate with the bellwether procedures can be referred to a specialized centre or collected for treatment by a visiting specialist team.
KeywordsCaesarean Delivery Open Fracture Clubfoot Surgical Care Universal Health Coverage
Funding was provided by Boston Children’s Hospital. The authors acknowledge the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery. RLG was supported by a Practitioner Fellowship from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
Because this project required international collaboration, many were involved with the conception and design of the study, analysis of the data, and production of the final manuscript. In particular, KMO, SLMG, MC, RDG, NR, NPR, JNR, DS, DW, and RLG were all intimately involved with the conception and design of the project. KMO, SLMG, MC, RDG, and NPR were critical for the acquisition of the data. KMD was critically important for the analysis and interpretation of the data. All authors contributed to editing of the final manuscript and gave final approval of this submission.
- 1.Bickler S, Weiser T, Kassenbaum N, Higashi H, Chang DC, Barendregt JJ, Noormadhomed EV, Vos T (2015) Chapter 2: global burden of surgical conditions. Disease control priorities, 3rd Edition: economic evaluation for health. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Meara JG, Leather A, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler SW, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Derivois Merisier E, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies RG, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykr NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W (2015) Global surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare and economic development. Lancet 386(9993):569–624CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Strengthening emergency and essential surgical care and anaesthesia as a component of universal health coverage: Report by the Secretariat. WHO Executive Board. EB135/3. May 16, 2014. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB135/B135_3-en.pdf
- 5.Hensher M, Price M, Adomakoh S. Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd edn. Chapter 66: Referral Hospitals, p 1230, Table 66.1 [cited 2015 March 9]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11737/
- 6.Surgical Care at the District Hospital. WHO 2003. [cited 2015 March 1]. http://www.who.int/surgery/publications/en/SCDH.pdf?ua=1
- 7.Primary Surgical Care Package (PSCP). The World Health Organization. [cited 2015 March 1]. http://www.who.int/surgery/publications/s16378e.pdf?ua=1
- 8.Debas H, Gosselin R, McCord C, Thind A (2006) Surgery. In: Jamison DT (ed) Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York City, pp 1245–1260Google Scholar
- 10.Mock CN, Donkor P, Gawande A, Jamison DT, Kruk ME, Debas HT (2015) Essential surgery: key messages from disease control priorities, 3rd edition. Lancet S0140–6736(15):60091–60095Google Scholar
- 14.Osen H, Chang D, Choo S, Perry H, Hesse A, Abantanga F, McCord C, Chrouser K, Abdullah F (2011) Validation of the World Health Organization tool for situational analysis to assess emergency and essential surgical care at district hospitals in Ghana. World J Surg 35(3):500–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Open Working Group proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations. [cited 2015 Feb 23]. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/focussdgs.html
- 18.Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels: Framework, measures, targets. May 2014. World Health Organization and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. [cited 2015 Feb 12]. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112824/1/WHO_HIS_HIA_14.1_eng.pdf