Advertisement

World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 395–401 | Cite as

The Global Burden of Esophageal Cancer: A Disability-Adjusted Life-Year Approach

  • Benjamin J. Di Pardo
  • Nathan W. Bronson
  • Brian S. Diggs
  • Charles R. ThomasJr.
  • John G. Hunter
  • James P. DolanEmail author
Original Scientific Report

Abstract

Introduction

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. As a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, its burden on society has yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study is to examine its global burden through estimation of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to it.

Methods

Global incidence and mortality estimates for esophageal cancer were obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer GLOBOCAN 2008 database. DALYs were calculated, using methodology established by the World Health Organization.

Results

In 2008, 3,955,919 DALYs were attributed to esophageal cancer, at a global rate of 0.58 DALYs per 1000 people annually. Years of life lost (YLL) accounted for 96.8 % of DALYs, while years lived with disability (YLD) accounted for 3.2 %. 83.8 % of the global DALYs occurred in less-developed countries, with most accrued in Eastern Asia, comprising 50.9 % of the total. The highest rate of DALY accrual was in Southern Africa, at 1.62 DALYs per 1000 people annually.

Conclusions

A substantial number of years of life were lost or affected by esophageal cancer worldwide in 2008, with the burden resting disproportionately on less-developed countries. Geographically, the greatest burden is in Eastern Asia. The vast majority of DALYs were due to YLL, rather than YLD, indicating the need to focus resources on disease prevention and early detection. Our findings provide an additional basis upon which to formulate global priorities for interventions that affect DALY reduction in esophageal cancer.

Keywords

Esophageal Cancer Disability Weight Year Live With Disability Capita Health Expenditure Total DALYs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Dolan’s authorship in this publication was supported by the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), and a grant (no. UL1TR000128) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

One of the authors of this manuscript is the Editor in Chief of the World Journal of Surgery. To avoid privileged treatment of this manuscript during peer review, Dr Hunter’s name was not included as an author during the review process. His contributions were only revealed after this manuscript was finally accepted, nearly 18 months after initial submission and many revisions.

Supplementary material

268_2015_3356_MOESM1_ESM.docx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 36 kb)
268_2015_3356_MOESM2_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 15 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F et al (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 127:2893–2917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Islami F, Kamangar F, Nasrollahzadeh D et al (2009) Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran—a review. Eur J Cancer 45:3156–3165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mahboubi E, Kmet J, Cook PJ et al (1973) Oesophageal cancer studies in the Caspian littoral of Iran: the Caspian cancer registry. Br J Cancer 28:197–214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rose EF, McGlashan ND (1975) The spatial distribution of oesophageal carcinoma in the Transkei, South Africa. Br J Cancer 31:197–206PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abnet CC, Wang Z, Song X et al (2012) Genotypic variants at 2q33 and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Hum Mol Genet 21:2132–2141PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cook MB, Chow WH, Devesa SS (2009) Oesophageal cancer incidence in the United States by race, sex, and histologic type, 1977-2005. Br J Cancer 101:855–859PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lepage C, Rachet B, Jooste V et al (2008) Continuing rapid increase in esophageal adenocarcinoma in England and Wales. Am J Gastroenterol 103:2694–2699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li T, Suo Q, He D et al (2012) Esophageal cancer risk is associated with polymorphisms of DNA repair genes MSH2 and WRN in Chinese population. J Thorac Oncol 7:448–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang JM, Xu B, Rao JY et al (2007) Diet habits, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, green tea drinking, and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Chinese population. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whiteman DC, Sadeghi S, Pandeya N et al (2008) Combined effects of obesity, acid reflux and smoking on the risk of adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus. Gut 57:173–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu C, Hu Z, He Z et al (2011) Genome-wide association study identifies three new susceptibility loci for esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in Chinese populations. Nat Genet 43:679–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang HZ, Jin GF, Shen HB (2012) Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations. Chin J Cancer 31:281–286PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murray CJ, Lopez AD, Jamison DT (1994) The global burden of disease in 1990: summary results, sensitivity analysis and future directions. Bull World Health Organ 72:495–509PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Derogar M, Orsini N, Sadr-Azodi O et al (2012) Influence of major postoperative complications on health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of esophageal cancer surgery. J Clin Oncol 30:1615–1619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Donohoe CL, McGillycuddy E, Reynolds JV (2011) Long-term health-related quality of life for disease-free esophageal cancer patients. World J Surg 35:1853–1860. doi: 10.1007/s00268-011-1123-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hurmuzlu M, Aarstad HJ, Aarstad AK et al (2011) Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors after high-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus 24:39–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, et al (eds) (2006) Global burden of disease and risk factors. World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murray CJ (1994) Quantifying the burden of disease: the technical basis for disability-adjusted life years. Bull World Health Organ 72:429–445PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sassi F (2010) Calculating QALYs and DALYs: methods and applications to fatal and non-fatal conditions. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR (eds) Handbook of disease burdens and quality of life measures. Springer, New York, pp 313–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sullivan DF (1971) A single index of mortality and morbidity. HSMHA Health Rep 86:347–354PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coale AJ, Demeny P (1966) Regional model life tables and stable populations. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coale A, Guo G (1989) Revised regional model life tables at very low levels of mortality. Popul Index 55:613–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Murray CJ, Acharya AK (1997) Understanding DALYs (disability-adjusted life years). J Health Econ 16:703–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anand S, Hanson K (1997) Disability-adjusted life years: a critical review. J Health Econ 16:685–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. (2010) GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase no. 10 [internet]. Lyon, France: International agency for research on cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed June 25, 2012
  26. 26.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009) World population prospects: the 2008 revision. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    United States Census Bureau international data base [Internet]: United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb. Accessed August 12, 2012
  28. 28.
    World Health Organization, World health statistics 2011 (2011). World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) Research Data (1973-2011), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2014, based on the November 2013 submission
  30. 30.
    Rice TW, Blackstone EH, Rybicki LA et al (2003) Refining esophageal cancer staging. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:1103–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rice TW, Blackstone EH, Rusch VW (2010) 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual: esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Ann Surg Oncol 17:1721–1724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kmet J, Mahboubi E (1972) Esophageal cancer in the Caspian littoral of Iran: initial studies. Science 175:846–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Law S, Wong J (2002) Changing disease burden and management issues for esophageal cancer in the Asia-Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:374–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Devesa SS, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF (1998) Changing patterns in the incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in the United States. Cancer 83:2049–2053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abrams JA, Sharaiha RZ, Gonsalves L et al (2011) Dating the rise of esophageal adenocarcinoma: analysis of connecticut tumor registry data, 1940-2007. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 20:183–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brown LM, Devesa SS (2009) Epidemiology and risk of esopahgeal cancer: clinical. In: Jobe BA, Thomas CR, Hunter JG (eds) Esophageal cancer: principles and practice. Demos Medical Publishing, New York, pp 103–113Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rokkas T, Pistiolas D, Sechopoulos P et al (2007) Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal neoplasia: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:1413–1417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nasrollahzadeh D, Kamangar F, Aghcheli K et al (2008) Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran. Br J Cancer 98:1857–1863PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rolon PA, Castellsague X, Benz M et al (1995) Hot and cold mate drinking and esophageal cancer in Paraguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 4:595–605Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sewram V, De Stefani E, Brennan P et al (2003) Meat consumption and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:508–513Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mohebbi M, Wolfe R, Jolley D et al (2011) The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: an ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences. Int J Health Geogr 10:13PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Ronco AL et al (2003) Food groups and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: A case-control study in Uruguay. Br J Cancer 89:1209–1214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Syrjanen KJ (2002) HPV infections and oesophageal cancer. J Clin Pathol 55:721–728PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cescon DW, Hopkins JP, Bradbury PA et al (2009) Epidemiology of esophageal cancer: molecular. In: Jobe BA, Thomas CR, Hunter JG (eds) Esophageal cancer: principles and practice. Demos Medical Publishing, New York, pp 93–102Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    World Health Organization Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (2001). Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic development. In: Steele H (ed) Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yang J, Wei WQ, Niu J et al (2012) Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China. World J Gastroenterol 18:2493–2501PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Whiteman DC (2009) Hot tea and increased risk of oesophageal cancer. BMJ 338:b610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stoner GD, Wang LS (2013) Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with berries. Top Curr Chem 329:1–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed March 30, 2014

Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin J. Di Pardo
    • 1
  • Nathan W. Bronson
    • 1
  • Brian S. Diggs
    • 1
  • Charles R. ThomasJr.
    • 2
  • John G. Hunter
    • 1
  • James P. Dolan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Digestive Health CenterOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer InstituteOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations