World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 38, Issue 11, pp 2746–2752 | Cite as

A Randomized Prospective Study Comparing Acquisition of Laparoscopic Skills in Three-Dimensional (3D) vs. Two-Dimensional (2D) Laparoscopy

  • B. Alaraimi
  • W. El Bakbak
  • S. Sarker
  • S. Makkiyah
  • A. Al-Marzouq
  • R. Goriparthi
  • A. Bouhelal
  • V. Quan
  • B. Patel



We aimed to compare the performance of novices with three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy using Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks.


Fifty-six novices with no uncorrected visual problems were randomly allocated to 2D and 3D groups. All candidates practiced FLS tasks on a box trainer until they achieved proficiency. Their performance was assessed by considering completion time, number of repetitions, and number of errors following the validated FLS proficiency criteria.


Twenty-five participants in each group completed the training curriculum. The median performance time (in minutes) for the 3D group was 216, which was less than that of the 2D group of 247 min (P = 0.266). The median numbers of repetitions and errors were lower for the 3D group versus the 2D group: 108 versus 121 (P = 0.008) and 27 versus 105 (P < 0.001), respectively.


Stereoscopic vision improved accuracy in laparoscopic skills for novices, which was manifested in reduced numbers of repetitions and errors. However, it does not affect the global performance time across all tasks.


Completion Time Conventional Laparoscopy Stereoscopic Vision Proficiency Criterion 
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Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Alaraimi
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. El Bakbak
    • 2
  • S. Sarker
    • 3
  • S. Makkiyah
    • 2
  • A. Al-Marzouq
    • 2
  • R. Goriparthi
    • 2
  • A. Bouhelal
    • 2
  • V. Quan
    • 2
  • B. Patel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Academic Department of Upper GI Surgery, Barts and Royal London HospitalQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Teaching Centre, Barts Cancer InstituteQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Centre for Experimental Cancer Medicine, Barts Cancer InstituteQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

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