World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 2257–2264 | Cite as

Effect of Diabetes on Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Emergent Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

  • Efstathios KaramanosEmail author
  • Emre Sivrikoz
  • Elizabeth Beale
  • Linda Chan
  • Kenji Inaba
  • Demetrios Demetriades



The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes and its effect on surgical outcomes in patients undergoing emergent, in-patient cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Some 8.3 % of the U.S. population has diabetes and this number is projected to rise to 21–33 % by 2050. Diabetes is considered to be associated with a higher incidence of acute cholecystitis; however, its impact on outcomes is unknown.


The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried to identify all patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent emergent in-patient cholecystectomy from 2004 to 2010. The study population was divided into two groups: diabetics and non-diabetics. Diabetics were further subdivided into those taking oral medication and those on insulin. Demographics, co-morbidities, and wound classification were compared with univariate analysis, and 30-day outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses.


A total of 5,460 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these 770 (14.10 %) had a diagnosis of diabetes. Mortality was higher for diabetics than for non-diabetics [4.4 vs 1.4 %, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95 % CI): 1.79 (1.09, 2.94), adj-p = 0.022]. Preoperative perforation rates were 25.1 and 13.0 %, respectively [AOR (95 % CI): 1.34 (1.09, 1.65), adj-p = 0.005]. The adjusted risk of cardiovascular events and renal failure was significantly higher for diabetics. Insulin treatment, but not oral medication, was associated with a significant increase in mortality, preoperative perforation, superficial surgical site infection, septic shock, cardiovascular incidents, and renal insufficiency.


In patients undergoing cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, diabetes increases the risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and renal failure. Insulin-treated diabetics have more co-morbidities and poorer outcomes.


Adjusted Odds Ratio Surgical Site Infection Cholecystitis Acute Cholecystitis National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; the data have not been verified and ACS NSQIP is not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Efstathios Karamanos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emre Sivrikoz
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Beale
    • 2
  • Linda Chan
    • 1
  • Kenji Inaba
    • 1
  • Demetrios Demetriades
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Acute Care Surgery, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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