World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 1195–1198

Breast Abscess, an Early Indicator for Diabetes Mellitus in Non-lactating Women: A Retrospective Study from Rural India




Breast abscess is commonly seen in lactating and non-lactating women. Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently predisposes to soft tissue infections and has many different presentations. But DM presenting in the form of breast abscess is yet to be studied, and we believe our study is the first to explore this connection.


We collected 30 cases of breast abscess in women who presented to our hospital from May 2010 to June 2011 retrospectively. They were classified into lactating and non-lactating women, and their glycemic status was evaluated, together with length of hospital stay, management, recurrence, and follow-up status after 6 months.


We found that of the 30 patients in our study, 20% had high blood sugar levels. And 37.5% of the non-lactating women were diagnosed newly with DM.


This study shows that DM can present as breast abscess in non-lactating women. Therefore, non-lactating women with a breast abscess should be evaluated for DM.


  1. 1.
    Boyko EJ, Lipsky BA (1995) Infection and diabetes. In: Harris MI, Cowie CC, Stern MP, Boyko EJ, Reiber GE, Bennet PH (eds) Diabetes in America, 2nd edn. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, pp 485–499Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rizzo M, Peng L, Frisch A et al (2009) Breast abscesses in nonlactating women with diabetes: clinical features and outcome. Am J Med Sci 338:123–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (2002) Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and Classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 26(Suppl 1):S5–S20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santen RJ, Mansel R (2005) Current concepts: benign breast disorders. N Engl J Med 353:275–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leary WG Jr (1948) Acute puerperal mastitis: a review. Calif Med 68:147–151Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fulton AA (1945) Incidence of puerperal and lactational mastitis in an industrial town of some 43,000 inhabitants. Br Med J 1:693–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furlong AJ, al-Nakib L, Knox WF et al (1994) Periductal inflammation and cigarette smoke. J Am Coll Surg 179:417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zuska J, Crile G Jr, Ayres WW (1951) Fistulas of lactiferous ducts. Am J Surg 81:312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Devereux WP (1970) Acute puerperal mastitis: evaluation of its management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108:78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benson EA (1989) Management of breast abscesses. World J Surg 13:753–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dener C, Inan A (2003) Breast abscesses in lactating women. World J Surg 27:130–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marchant DJ (2002) Inflammation of the breast. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 29:89–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shah BR, Hux JE (2003) Quantifying the risk of infectious diseases for people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 26:510–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calvet HM, Yoshikawa TT (2001) Infections in diabetes. Infect Dis Clin N Am 15:407–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pozzilli P, Leslie RDG (1994) Infections and diabetes: mechanisms and prospects for prevention. Diabet Med 11:935–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rizzo M, Peng L, Frisch A et al (2010) Management of breast abscesses in non-lactating women. Am Surg 76:292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levetan CS, Magee MF (2000) Hospital management of diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 29:745–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leahy JL, Bonner-Weir S, Weir GC (1992) Beta-cell dysfunction induced by chronic hyperglycemia: current ideas on mechanism of impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. Diabetes Care 15:442–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eryilmaz R, Sahin M, Hakan Tekelioglu M et al (2005) Management of lactational breast abscesses. Breast 14:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Preece PE (1982) The breast. In: Cuschieri A, Giles GR, Moosa AR (eds) Essential surgical practice. John Wright, Bristol, pp 811–831Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hunt KK, Newman LA, Copeland EM III et al (2010) The breast, chap 17. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR et al (eds) Schwartz’s principles of surgery, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dixon JM (1994) Breast infection. BMJ 309:946–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lequin MH, van Spengler J, van Pel R et al (1995) Mammographic and sonographic spectrum of non-puerperal mastitis. Eur J Radiol 21:138–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lönnerdal B (2003) Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 77:S1537–S1543Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krinsley JS, Jones RL (2006) Cost analysis of intensive glycemic control in critically ill adult patients. Chest 129:644–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scholefield JH, Duncan JL, Rogers K (1987) Review of hospital experience of breast abscesses. Br J Surg 74:469–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Frost MH et al (2005) Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 353:229–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tuazon CU (1984) Skin and skin structure infections in the patient at risk: carrier state of Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Med 76:166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bland KI (1998) Inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic disorders of the breast. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM III (eds) The breast: comprehensive management of benign and malignant diseases, 2nd edn. WB Saunders Company, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thomsen AC, Espersen T, Maigaard S (1984) Course and treatment of milk stasis, noninfectious inflammation of the breast, and infectious mastitis in nursing women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149:492–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R et al (2007) Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 125:217–230PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgerySt. Johns HospitalIdukki DistrictIndia

Personalised recommendations