World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 35, Issue 8, pp 1879–1886 | Cite as

Review of the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Type I Gastric Carcinoid Tumor

  • Linda Zhang
  • Junko Ozao
  • Richard Warner
  • Celia Divino


Gastric carcinoid tumors comprise 7% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids and have significantly increased in incidence over the past few decades. Seventy to 80% of gastric carcinoids are type I, which usually are clinically asymptomatic and found incidentally at endoscopic evaluation for abdominal pain or anemia. In this review, advances in understanding the pathophysiology of type I gastric carcinoid are highlighted. In addition, various current diagnostic and treatment options are discussed. Although type I carcinoids generally hold a benign course, rigorous investigation is needed to ensure accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. This includes appropriate diagnostic procedures and imaging and accurate staging of tumor. Tumor size, depth of invasion, presence of metastasis, and the tumor’s gastrin dependency dictate treatment options. Appropriate treatments can consist of endoscopic resection, antrectomy, medical management, or frequent follow-up. This article provides a systematic method of evaluating and treating type I gastric carcinoid.


Carcinoid Tumor Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Gastric Carcinoid Open Distal Gastrectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Zhang
    • 1
  • Junko Ozao
    • 1
  • Richard Warner
    • 2
  • Celia Divino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of MedicineMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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