Clinical and Histopathological Characteristics of Hyperparathyroidism-induced Hypercalcemic Crisis
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The clinical and pathological characteristics of hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis (HIHC) are incompletely described. The present study was designed to elucidate the nature and effects of HIHC in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in our unit.
A prospective database of 1,754 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who underwent parathyroidectomy from 1991–2009 identified 67 (41 women) patients presenting with HIHC. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was defined as symptoms and signs of acute calcium intoxication with a concomitant total albumin corrected calcium level >13.5 mg/dl (range: 8.8–10.2 mg/dl). Clinical and pathological characteristics were evaluated. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.
Mean age at presentation was 56.7 ± 2.2 years. Twenty-four of 67 patients (35%) required preoperative in-hospital management. Of these, all were treated with saline resuscitation, whereas 20/24 (83%) were treated pharmacologically. Neurocognitive derangements and nephrolithiasis with associated hematuria were the most common presenting symptoms and signs. Preoperative serum calcium and the intact parathyroid hormone level (PTH) were 14.0 ± 0.19 mg/dl and 393 ± 43 pg/ml (reference range: 12–65 pg/ml), respectively. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy under local cervical block was performed in 28/67 patients (42%); the remainder underwent standard cervical exploration. All patients had postoperative normalization of serum calcium and intact PTH. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was due to parathyroid carcinoma in 3/67 patients (4.5%), whereas the remainder of patients displayed a single parathyroid adenoma (n = 57) or multiglandular hyperplasia (n = 7). Histopathological evaluation from HIHC patients revealed a chief cell microcystic pattern in 15/21 (71.4%) of examined parathyroid tumors.
Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis is most commonly due to a single parathyroid adenoma, often associated with a microcystic histopathological pattern. The condition is optimally managed with saline hydration and urgent parathyroidectomy.
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