World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 1171–1180 | Cite as

Thyroid Ultrasonography

  • Yasuhiro Ito
  • Nobuyuki Amino
  • Akira Miyauchi



The recent prevalence of ultrasonography (US) has facilitated the early detection and qualitative evaluation of thyroid nodules. Furthermore, novel technical developments are extending the application range of US for other thyroid diseases.


The use of US to differentiate between thyroid carcinoma and benign nodule, between a metastatic lymph node and a reactive node, between thyroid lymphoma and chronic thyroiditis, and between destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis and Graves’ disease is introduced.


Classification systems for thyroid nodule have shown high diagnostic accuracy for thyroid carcinomas except follicular carcinoma. US diagnosis of lymph node metastasis showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Patients who were suspected of thyroid lymphoma based on US findings should undergo incisional biopsy or thyroidectomy for diagnosis of the histologic type if fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings suggest lymphoma. Patients should be carefully followed even if they were diagnosed as negative based on cytologic findings. Measurement of thyroid blood flow is helpful for diagnosing destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis, such as painless thyroiditis, by distinguishing the lesion from Graves’ disease.


Ultrasonography is useful for diagnosing various thyroid diseases, including thyroid carcinoma. The remaining issue to be resolved is the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma. Trials using novel techniques to differentiate these lesions are expected.


Thyroid Carcinoma Positive Predictive Value Negative Predictive Value Thyroid Nodule Papillary Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryKuma HospitalKobeJapan
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineKuma HospitalKobeJapan

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