World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 1384–1391 | Cite as

Proanthocyanidin Protects Intestine and Remote Organs Against Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

  • Ali Sizlan
  • Ahmet Guven
  • Bulent Uysal
  • Omer Yanarates
  • Abdulkadir Atim
  • Emin Oztas
  • Ahmet Cosar
  • Ahmet Korkmaz



Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) induces a systemic inflammatory response and releases harmful substances that may affect the function and integrity of distant organs such as lung, liver, and kidney. We conducted this study to find out if proanthocyanidins (PA) has protective effects against mesenteric IR injury and mesenteric IR-induced intestinal and distant organ injury.

Materials and methods

Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, control + PA, IR, IR + PA. The IR and IR + PA groups were subjected to mesenteric arterial ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion for 6 h. The Control + PA and IR + PA groups were administered PA (100 mg/kg/day via oral gavage) for 7 days prior to injury insult. We collected ileal and distant organ tissues, such as pulmonary, hepatic, and kidney specimens to measure tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and we then evaluated histological changes.


In the IR group, significant increases in MDA and NOx levels and significant increases in SOD and GPx activities of intestine, liver, kidney, and lung were observed. The MDA and NOx levels were significantly lower, as were the SOD and GPx activities in the IR + PA group than that in the IR group. Although the intestine and distant organs damage scores were significantly higher in the IR group, these injuries were prevented by PA in the IR + PA group.


This study demonstrates that PA has a significant effect in the protection of the intestine and the remote organs against mesenteric IR injury.


Distant Organ Mesenteric Ischemia Grape Seed Grape Seed Extract Decrease Lipid Peroxidation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Sizlan
    • 1
  • Ahmet Guven
    • 2
  • Bulent Uysal
    • 3
  • Omer Yanarates
    • 1
  • Abdulkadir Atim
    • 1
  • Emin Oztas
    • 4
  • Ahmet Cosar
    • 1
  • Ahmet Korkmaz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and ReanimationGulhane Military Medical AcademyEtlikTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric SurgeryGulhane Military Medical AcademyEtlikTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyGulhane Military Medical AcademyEtlikTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Medical Histology and EmbryologyGulhane Military Medical AcademyEtlikTurkey

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