Environmental Management

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 291–304 | Cite as

Projected Climate Change Effects on Winterkill in Shallow Lakes in the Northern United States

  • Xing  Fang
  • Heinz G.  Stefan


was obtained from the output of the Canadian Climate Center General Circulation Model. To illustrate the effect of projected climate change on lake DO characteristics, we present herein DO information simulated, respectively, with inputs of past climate conditions (1961–1979) and with a projected 2 × CO2 climate scenario, as well as differences of those values. Specific parameters obtained were minimum under-ice and lake bottom DO concentration in winter, duration of under-ice anoxic conditions (<0.1 mg/liter) and low DO conditions (<3 mg/liter), and percentage of anoxic and low DO lake volumes during the ice cover period. Under current climate conditions winterkill occurs typically in shallow eutrophic lakes of the northern contiguous United States. Climate warming is projected to eliminate winterkill in these lakes. This would be a positive effect of climate warming. Fish species under ice may still experience periods of stress and zero growth due to low DO (<3 mg/liter) conditions under projected climate warming.

KEY WORDS: Climate change; Dissolved oxygen; Fish; Winterkill; United States; Lakes; Simulations 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing  Fang
    • 1
  • Heinz G.  Stefan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710, USA US
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA US

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