), crossbills (Loxia spp.), and tree pipit (Anthus trivialis). The composition of the bird community did not vary significantly between the compared transects. Some species appeared to favour road–forest edges but this could not be confirmed with our data. These species were not the same as have been reported to favor clear-fellings–mature forest edges. Therefore, the edge effect does not seem to be the most important factor controlling relative bird densities immediately adjacent and further away from highways. The likelihood of avoiding the problems the highways are causing for bird density are been discussed.
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