Environmental Management

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 587–598 | Cite as

Wildland Recreation and Human Waste: A Review of Problems, Practices, and Concerns

  • Amy  Cilimburg
  • Christopher  Monz
  • Sharon  Kehoe

It is difficult to make general recommendations that apply to all ecosystems. There is still a relative dearth of studies that allow the manager or visitor to come up with specific practices that are the best for their area. The preferred method of disposal remains to dig a small hole (cat hole) and bury the waste. Other site specific methods are also discussed.

Treatment of drinking water has become standard practice for most backcountry travel. With such treatment, there is little evidence currently to suggest that the health hazard to humans is great enough to impose further regulation in areas currently using cat holes.

KEY WORDS: Human waste, Recreation, Wilderness management, Water quality, Camping practices 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy  Cilimburg
    • 1
  • Christopher  Monz
    • 1
  • Sharon  Kehoe
    • 1
  1. 1.The National Outdoor Leadership School Research Program, 288 Main Street, Lander, Wyoming 82520, USA US

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