Environmental Management

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 391–415 | Cite as

Do the Adaptations of Venice and Miami to Sea Level Rise Offer Lessons for Other Vulnerable Coastal Cities?

  • Emanuela MolinaroliEmail author
  • Stefano Guerzoni
  • Daniel Suman


Both Venice and Miami are high-density coastal cities that are extremely vulnerable to rising sea levels and climate change. Aside from their sea-level location, they are both characterized by large populations, valuable infrastructure and real estate, and economic dependence on tourism, as well as the availability of advanced scientific data and technological expertize. Yet their responses have been quite different. We examine the biophysical environments of the two cities, as well as their socio-economic features, administrative arrangements vulnerabilities, and responses to sea level rise and flooding. Our study uses a qualitative approach to illustrate how adaptation policies have emerged in these two coastal cities. Based on this information, we critically compare the different adaptive responses of Venice and Miami and suggest what each city may learn from the other, as well as offer lessons for other vulnerable coastal cities. In the two cases presented here it would seem that adaptation to SLR has not yet led to a reformulation of the problem or a structural transformation of the relevant institutions. Decision-makers must address the complex issue of rising seas with a combination of scientific knowledge, socio-economic expertize, and good governance. In this regard, the “hi-tech” approach of Venice has generated problems of its own (as did the flood control projects in South Florida over half a century ago), while the increasing public mobilization in Miami appears more promising. The importance of continued long-term adaptation measures is essential in both cities.


Climate change Vulnerability Coastal cities Barrier islands Adaptive management Resilience 



We would like to thank Andrea Barbanti for preliminary discussion on the outline of the paper. The authors wish to thank Gian Marco Scarpa for the support drawing Fig. 1 and Keren Bolter for Fig. 5. We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers who provided helpful comments on our manuscript. This study was financed by IRIDE Program 2016, “DAIS Incentivi alla ricerca individuale”, funded by University Ca’ Foscari of Venice.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

267_2019_1198_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary Information1
267_2019_1198_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary Table 1
267_2019_1198_MOESM3_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary Table 2
267_2019_1198_MOESM4_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary Information2
267_2019_1198_MOESM5_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary Information3


  1. Ammerman AJ, McClennen CE (2000) Saving Venice. Science 289:1301–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonioli FM, Anzidei A, Amorosi V, Lo Presti G, Mastronuzzi G, Deiana G, De Falco G, Fontana A, Fontolan G, Lisco S, Marsico A, Moretti M, Orrù PE, Sannino GM, Serpelloni E, Vecchio A (2017) Sea-level rise and potential drowning of the Italian coastal plains: flooding risk scenarios for 2100. Quat Sci Rev 158:29–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araos M, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Austin SE, Lesnikowski A (2016) Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: a systematic global assessment. Environ Sci Policy 66:375–382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariza E, Lindeman KC, Mozumder P, Suman DO (2014) Beach management in Florida: assessing stakeholder perceptions on governance. Ocean Coast Manag 96:82–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aumen NG, Havens KE, Best GR, Berry L (2015) Predicting ecological responses of the Florida Everglades to possible future climate scenarios: Introduction. Environ Manag 55:741–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks KW, Riegl BM, Shinn EA, Piller WE, Dodge RE (2007) Geomorphology of the southeast Florida continental reef tract (Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties, USA). Coral Reefs 26:617–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloetscher F, Romah T (2015) Tools for assessing sea level rise vulnerability. J Water Clim Change 6:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloetscher F, Polsky C, Bolter K, Mitsova D, Palbicke Garces K, King R, Carballo IC, Hamilton K (2016) Assessing potential impacts of sea level rise on public health and vulnerable populations in Southeast Florida and providing a framework to improve outcomes. Sustainability 8:315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bock Y, Wdowinski S, Ferretti A, Novali F, Fumagalli A (2012) Recent subsidence of the Venice Lagoon from continuous GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Res Lett.
  10. Butler WH, Deyle RE, Mutnansky C (2016) Low-regrets incrementalism: land use planning adaptation to accelerating sea level rise in Florida’s coastal communities. J Plan Educ Res 36(3):319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camuffo D, Bertolin C, Schenal P (2017) A novel proxy and the sea level rise in Venice, Italy, from 1350 to 2014. Clim Change 143:73–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caniato G (2005) Between salt and fresh water. In: Fletcher CA, Spencer T (eds.) Flooding and environmental challenges for Venice and its lagoon: state of knowledge. Cambridge University Press, London UK, p 7–14Google Scholar
  13. Carbognin L, Teatini P, Tomasin A, Tosi L (2009) Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding. Clim Dyn.
  14. Carraro C, Sgobbi A (2008) Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies In Italy. An economic assessment FEEM Nota di Lavoro, 6:28Google Scholar
  15. Church JA, Clark PU, Cazenave A, Gregory JM, Jevrejeva S, Levermann A, Merrifield M, Milne G, Nerem R, Nunn P et al. (2013) Sea level change. PM Cambridge University Pres, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  16. Comerlati A, Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Putti M, Teatini P (2003) Can CO2 help save Venice from the sea? EoS Trans Am Geophys Union 84:546–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Comerlati A, Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Putti M, Teatini P (2004) Saving Venice by sea water. J Geophys Res 109:F03006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corcoran WT, Johnson E (2005) Climate of North America. In: Oliver JE (ed) Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Sherbinin A, Schiller A, Pulsipher A (2007) The vulnerability of global cities to climate hazards. Environ Urban 19(1):39–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Conto RM, Pollard D (2016) Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise. Nature 531:591–597. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fagherazzi S, Carniello L, D’Alpaos L, Defina A(2006) Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:8337–8341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Favero G (2014) Venezia dopo Venezia: economia e demografia urbana nel novecento (in italian). Lab Ital 15:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fernandino G, Elliff CI, Silva IR (2018) Ecosystem-based management of coastal zones in face of climate change impacts: challenges and inequalities. J Environ Manag 215:32–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Flavelle C (2017) The nightmare scenario for Florida´s coastal homeowners. Bloomberg News.
  25. Fiaschi S, Wdowinski S (2016) The contribution of land subsidence to the increasing coastal flooding hazard in Miami Baeach. In: 2nd international workshop on coastal subsidence, Venice (Italy) 30 May–1 June 2016Google Scholar
  26. Finkl CW, Warner MT (2005) Morphologic features and morphodynamic zones along the inner continental shelf of Southeastern Florida: an example of form and process controlled by lithology. J Coast Res, Spec Issue 42:79–96Google Scholar
  27. Finkl CW, Restrepo-Coupe N (2007) Potential natural environments based on pedological properties in the coastal conurbation of subtropical southeast Florida. J Coast Res 23(2):317–349Google Scholar
  28. Finkl CW, Andrews JL (2008) Shelf geomorphology along the southeast Florida Atlantic continental platform: barrier coral reefs, nearshore bedrock, and morphosedimentary features. J Coast Res 24(4):823–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Finkl CW (2014) East Florida’s Barrier Islands: natural vs. man-made.
  30. Fletcher CA, Spencer T (2005) Flooding and environmental challenges for Venice and its lagoon: state of knowledge. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleming E, Payne J, Sweet W, Craghan M, Haines J, Hart JF, Stiller H, Sutton-Grier A (2018) Coastal effects. In: Reidmiller DR, Avery CW, Easterling RD, Kunkel KE, Lewis KLM, Maycock TK, Stewart BC (eds) Impacts, risks, and adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, p 322–352. 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH8Google Scholar
  32. Foster AB (1983) Biscayne National Park. In: Harris A, Tuttle E (eds) Geology of national parks. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, p 443–452Google Scholar
  33. Fu X, Gomaa M, Deng Y, Zhong-Ren P (2017) Adaptation planning for sea level rise: a study of US coastal cities. J Environ Plan Manag 60(2):249–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gambolati G, Teatini P, Ferronato M, Strozzi T, Tosi L, Putti M (2009) On the uniformity of anthropogenic Venice uplift. Terra Nova 21:467–473. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ghose T (2013) The 20 Cities Most Vulnerable to Flooding. Live ScienceGoogle Scholar
  36. Goodell J (2017) The water will come: rising seas, sinking cities, and the remaking of the civilized world. Little, Brown, and Company, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  37. Grunwald M (2007) The swamp: the Everglades, Florida, and the politics of paradise. Simon and Schuster, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallengatte S, Green C, Nicholls RJ, Corfee-Morlot J (2013) Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nat Clim Change 3:802–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanson S, Nichols R, Ranger N, Hallegarte S, Corfee-Morlot J, Herweijer C, Chateau C (2011) A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Clim Change 104:89–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hauer ME, Evans JM, Mishra DR (2016) Millions projected to be at risk from sea-level rise in the continental United States. Nat Clim Change 6:691–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hay CC, Morrow E, Kopp RE, Mitrovica JX (2015) Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise. Nat Clim Change 517:481–484Google Scholar
  42. Hoffmeister JE (1982) Land from the sea: the geologic story of South Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  43. Hughes JD, White JT (2016) Hydrologic conditions in urban Miami-Dade County, Florida, and the effect of groundwater pumpage and increased sea level rise on canal leakage and regional groundwater flow (Version1.2, July 2016). U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5162. 175 pp.
  44. Idealista (2015) Indice annuale 2015 dei prezzi delle abitazioni di seconda mano (2015 annual price index for second-hand housing).
  45. Indirli M, Knezic S, Borg RP, Kaluarachchi Y, Ranguelov B, Romagnoli F, Rochas C (2014) The ANDROID case study; Venice and its territory: a general overview. Procedia Econ Financ 18:837–848. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (eds)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, p 151Google Scholar
  47. Juhola S, Westerhoff L (2011) Challenges of adaptation to climate change across multiple scales: a case study of network governance in two European countries. Environ Sci Policy 14:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaluarachchi Y, Indirli M, Ranguelov B, Romagnoli F (2014) The ANDROID case study; Venice and its territory: existing mitigation options and challenges for the future. Procedia Econ Financ 18:815–824. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keahey J (2002) Venice against the sea: A City Besieged. St. Martin’s PressGoogle Scholar
  50. Keim BD, Muller RA, Stone GW (2007) Spatiotemporal patterns and return periods of tropical storm and hurricane strikes from Texas to Maine. J Clim 20:3498–3509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirwan ML, Megonigal JP (2013) Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504:53–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Koch MS, Coronado C, Miller MW, Rudnick DT, Stabenau E, Halley RB, Sklar FH (2015) Climate change projected effects on coastal foundation communities of the Greater Everglades using a 2060 scenario: need for a new management paradigm. Environ Manag 55:857–875. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kopp RE, Kemp AC, Bittermann K, Horton BP, Donnelly JP, Gehrels WR, Hay CC, Mitrovica JX, Morrow ED, Rahmstorf S (2016) Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:E1434–E1441.
  54. Korten T (2015) Gov. Rick Scott’s ban on climate change term extended to other state agencies. Miami Herald, 11 March 2015Google Scholar
  55. Kulp S, Strauss BH (2017) Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise. Clim Change 142:477–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lambeck K, Antonioli F, Anzidei M, Ferranti L, Leoni G, Scicchitano G, Silenzi S (2011) Sea level change along the Italian coast during the Holocene and projections for the future. Quat Int 232:250–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lentz EE, Thieler ER, Plant NG, Stippa SR, Horton RM, Gesch DB (2016) Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood. Nat Clim Change 6:696–701. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lodge TE (2010) The Everglades handbook: understanding the ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  59. Magill B (2017) Miami taxpayters asked to foot the bill to protect the city from climate change. Climate Liability.
  60. Malmstadt JC, Elsner JB, Jagger TH (2019) Risk of strong hurricane winds to Florida cities. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 49:2121–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mancuso F (2014) Building on water: the surprising expedients that made possible the birth and growth of Venice. Corte del Fontego Editore, VeniceGoogle Scholar
  62. Marsico A, Lisco S, Lo Presti V, Antonioli F, Amorosi A, Anzidei M, Deiana G, De Falco G, Fontana A, Fontolan G, Moretti M, Orrù PE, Serpelloni E, Sannino G, Vecchio A, Mastronuzzi G (2017) Flooding scenario for four Italian coastal plains using three relative sea level rise models. J Maps 13(2):961–967.
  63. Maul GA, (2008) Florida’s changing sea level in Shoreline.The Florida Beach and Shore Preservation Society.
  64. MAV-CVN (2013) Gestione sostenibile dell’identità lagunare veneziana (Sustainable management of the Venetian lagoon identity), C.1. 14, Doc. 70786-REL-T003. 0., 230 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Maxwell K, Julius S, Grambsch A, Kosmal A, Larson L, Sonti N (2018) Built environment, urban systems, and cities. In: Reidmiller DR, Avery CW, Easterling DR, Kunkel KE, Lewis KLM, Maycock TK, Stewart BC (eds) Impacts, risks, and adaptation in the United States: fourth national climate assessment, Volume II. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH11 438–478Google Scholar
  66. Melillo JM, Richmond TTC, Yohe GW eds (2014) Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program.
  67. Miami-Dade County (2014a) Climate change action plan.
  68. Miami-Dade County (2014b) Sea level rise task force report and recommendations.
  69. Miami-Dade County. Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources (2017). Adopted Components: Comprehensive Development Master Plan for Miami-Dade County, Florida.
  70. Milne GA, Gehrels WR, Hughes CW, Tamisiea ME (2009) Identifying the causes of sea-level change. Nat Geosci 2:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Molinaroli E, Guerzoni S, De Falco G, Sarretta A, Cucco A, Como S, Simeone S, Perilli A, Magni P (2009a) Relationships between hydrodynamic parameters and grain size in two contrasting transitional environments: the Lagoons of Venice and Cabras, Italy. Sediment Geol 219:196–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Molinaroli E, Guerzoni S, Sarretta A, Masiol M, Pistolato M (2009b) Thirty-year changes (1970–2000) in bathymetry and sediment texture recorded in the lagoon of Venice sub-basins, Italy. Mar Geol 258:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Munaretto S, Huitema D (2012) Adaptive comanagement in the Venice lagoon? An analysis of current water and environmental management practices and prospects for change. Ecol Soc 17(2):19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. National Hurricane Center (2019) Estimated return period in years for hurricanes passing within 50 nautical miles of various locations on the U.S. coast.
  75. NRDC (National Academy of Sciences) (2012) Disaster resilience: a national imperative. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 10.17226/13457Google Scholar
  76. Neumann JE, Emanuel K, Ravela S, Ludwig L, Kirshen P, Bosma K, Martinich J (2015) Joint effects of storm surge and sea-level rise on US Coasts: New economic estimates of impacts, adaptation, and benefits of mitigation policy. Clim Change 129:337–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nicholls RJ, Hanson S, Herweijer C, Patmore N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Morlot J, Chateau J, Muir-Wood R (2007) Ranking of the world's cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future. OECD Environment Working Paper No. 1 (ENV/WKP(2007)1)Google Scholar
  78. Nicholls RJ (2011) Planning for the impacts of sea level rise. Oceanography 24(2):144–157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. NOAA/AOML (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory) (2009) All U.S. Hurricanes (1851–2008). Miami:,, Accessed Aug 2016
  80. Nungesser M, Saunders C, Coronado-Molina C, Obeysekera J, Johnson J, McVoy C, Benscoter B (2015) Potential effects of climate change on Florida's Everglades. Environ Manag 55:824–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Obeysekera J, Browder J, Hornung L, Harwell MA (1999) The natural South Florida system I: climate, geology and hydrology. Urban Ecosyst 3:223–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Obeysekera J, Barnes J, Nungesser M (2015) Climate sensitivity runs and regional hydrologic modeling for predicting the response of the Greater Florida Everglades Ecosystem to climate change. Environ Manag 55:749–762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Panza GF, Bisignano D, Romanelli F (2014) Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard? arXiv:1406.2821 [physics.geo-ph]
  84. Passeri DL, Hagen SC, Medeiros SC, Bilskie MV, Alizad K, Wang D (2015) The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: a review. Earth’s Future 3:159–181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Patricola CM, Wehner MF (2018) Anthropogenic influences on major tropical cyclone events. Nature 563:339–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pfeffer WT, Harper JT, Neel SO (2008) Kinematic constraints on glacier contribution to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science 321(5894):1340–1343. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pilkey OH, Dixon KL (1996) The corps and the shore. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  88. Pielke RA, Gratz J, Landsea CW, Collins D, Saunders MA, Musulin R (2008) Normalized hurricane damages in the United States: 1900–2005. Nat Hazards Rev 29(1):29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Precht WF, Miller SL (2007) Ecological shifts along the Florida Reef Tract: the past as a key to the future. In: Aronson RB ed. Geological approaches to coral reef ecology. Springer, Berlin, p 237–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rahmstorf S, Foster G, Cazenave A (2012) Comparing climate projections to observations upto 2011. Environ Res Lett 7:044035. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rahmstorf S, Box JE, Feulner G, Mann ME, Robinson A, Rutherford S, Schaffernicht E (2015) Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation. Nat Clim Change 5:475–480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ramieri E, Hartley A, Barbanti A, Duarte Santos F, Gomes A, Hilden M, Laihonen P, Marinova N, Santini M (2011) Methods for assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change, European Topic Centre on Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation (ETC CCA) Technical Paper, Bologna (IT), p 93Google Scholar
  93. Rao K (2016) Climate change and housing: Will a rising tide sink all homes? Zillow document. Zillow Research.
  94. Roggero M, Fritsch O (2010) Mind the costs: rescaling and multi-level environmental governance in Venice lagoon. Environ Manag 46:17–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rusconi A (2016) La gestione della laguna con la soppressione del Magistrato alle Acque. In: Salvaguardia domani, oltre il MOSE. Sala S.Leonardo 4/11/2016 (in italian)Google Scholar
  96. Sarretta A, Pillon S, Molinaroli E, Guerzoni S, Fontolan G (2010) Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Cont Shelf Res 30:934–949. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. SFWMD (2018) 2018 Lower east coast water supply plan update.
  98. Sklar FH, Chimney MJ, Newman S, McCormick P, Gawlik D, Miao SL, McVoy C, Said W, Newman J, Coronado C, Crozier G, Korvela M, Rutchey K (2005) The ecological-societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration. Front Ecol Environ 3(3):161–169Google Scholar
  99. Smiley D (2017) Miami gets $200 million to spend on sea rise as voters pass Miami Forever bond. Miami Herald.
  100. Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact Counties (2012) A region responds to a changing climate: Regional Climate Action Plan.Google Scholar
  101. Spence A, Poortinga W, Pidgeon N (2012) The psychological distance of climate change. Risk Anal 32:957–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stammer D (2008) Response of the global ocean to Greenland and Antarctic ice melting. J Geophys Res 113:C06022. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Suman D, Guerzoni S, Molinaroli E (2005) Integrated coastal management in the Venice lagoon and its watershed. Hydrobiologia 550:251–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sweet W, Kopp R, Weaver C, Obeysekera J, Horton R, Thieler ER, Zervas C (2017) Global and regional sea level rise scenarios for the United States. Silver Spring, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  105. Teatini P, Tosi L, Strozzi T, Carbognin L, Cecconi G, Rosselli R, Libardo S (2012) Resolving land subsidence within the Venice Lagoon by persistent scatterer SAR interferometry. Phys Chem Earth 40-41:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Thead EA (2016) Sea level rise: risk and resilience in coastal cities. The Climate Institute
  107. Tobey J, Rubinoff P, Robadue D, Ricci G, Volk R, Furlow J, Anderson G (2010) Practicing coastal adaptation to climate change: lessons from integrated coastal management. Coast Manag 38:317–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Torresan S, Critto A, Rizzi J, Marcomini A (2012) Assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change hazards at the regional scale: the case study of the North Adriatic Sea. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12(7):2347–2368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tosi L, Teatini P, Strozzi T (2013) Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice Sci Rep 3:2710.
  110. Tosi L, Teatini P, Strozzi T, Da Lio C (2014) Relative land subsidence of the Venice coastland, Italy. Eng Geol Soc Territ 4:171–173Google Scholar
  111. Treuer G, Broad K, Meter R (2018) Using simulations to forecast homeowner response to sea level rise in South Florida: will they stay or will they go? Glob Clim Change 48:108–118Google Scholar
  112. Trincardi F, Barbanti A, Bastianini M, Benetazzo A, Cavaleri L, Chiggiato J, Papa A, Pomaro A, Sclavo M, Tosi L, Umgiesser G (2016) The 1966 flooding of Venice: what time taught us for the future. Oceanography 29(4):178–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Umgiesser G, Matticchio B (2006) Simulating the mobile barrier (MOSE) operation in the Venice Lagoon, Italy: global sea level rise and its implication for navigation. Ocean Dyn 56:320–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists) (2017) Encroaching tides in Miami-Dade County, Florida, UCS Fact Sheet, pp 1–10.
  115. UNESCO (2015) Report of the joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/Ramsar Reactive Monitoring mission to the property of Venice and its Lagoon (Italy), 13–18 October 2015Google Scholar
  116. UNISDR (2009) Terminology on disaster risk reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Google Scholar
  117. Valle-Levinson A, Dutton A, Martin JB (2017) Spatial and temporal variability of sea level rise hot spots over the eastern United States. Geophys Res Lett 44:7876–7882. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Varrani A, Nones M (2017) Vulnerability, impacts and assessment of climate change on Jakarta and Venice. Int J River Basin Manag
  119. Vergano L, Nunes P (2007) Analysis and evaluation of ecosystem resilience: an economic perspective with an application to the Venice lagoon. Biodivers Conserv 16:3385–3408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vergano L, Umgiesser G, Nunes P (2010) An economic assessment of the impact of the MOSE barriers on Venice port activity. FEEM Sustainable Development Series, Report 17/2010 35 ppGoogle Scholar
  121. Vermeer M, Rahmstorf S (2009) Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wachinger G, Renn O, Begg C, Kuhlicke C (2013) The risk perception paradox—implications for governance and communication of natural hazards. Risk Anal 33:1049–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wanless HR, Parkinson RW, Tedesco LP (1994) Sea level control on stability of wetlands. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida, p 199–223Google Scholar
  124. Wdowinski S, Bray R, Kirtman BP, Wu Z (2016) Increasing flooding hazard in coastal communities due to rising sea level: case study of Miami Beach, Florida. Ocean Coast Manag 126:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weber EU (2016) What shapes perceptions of climate change? New research since 2010. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 7:125–134. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Weiss JL, Overpeck JT, Strauss B (2011) Implications of recent sea level rise science for low-elevation areas of coastal cities of the conterminous U.S.A. Clim Change 105:635–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zaggia L, Lorenzetti G, Manfè G, Scarpa GM, Molinaroli E, Parnell KE, Rapaglia JP, Gionta M, Soomere T (2017) Fast shoreline erosion induced by ship wakes in a coastal lagoon: field evidence and remote sensing analysis. PLoS ONE 12:1–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zanuttigh B (2011) Coastal flood protection: what perspective in a changing climate? The THESEUS approach. Environ Sci Policy 14:845–863. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zervas C (2009) Sea Level Variations of the United States 1854-2006. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 053, 75p, Appendices A–E.
  130. Zhang K (2011) Analysis of non-linear inundation from sea-level rise using LIDAR data: a case study for South Florida. Clim Change 106:537–565. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e StatisticaUniversità Ca’ FoscariVeneziaItaly
  2. 2.International Marine CenterTorregrande, LocOristanoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Marine Ecosystems and Society, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations