Evaluating the management effectiveness of protected areas in Mongolia using the management effectiveness tracking tool
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The importance of management increases in the context of numerous and intensive inner and outer pressures on Protected Areas (PAs). The need to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas is increasing around the world. The ME assessment helps to improve the management of PAs and to develop a rational, long-term action plan. This study was conducted using the World Wildlife Fund for nature (WWF) Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools methodology (METT) to evaluate the ME of six PAs in central and eastern regions of Mongolia. The main purpose of this study was to assess ME and identify common threats of PAs across different natural zones and administrative areas in Mongolia. The results of this evaluation indicate that, the main threats faced by PAs in Mongolia are: (i) degradation of ecosystems, (ii) environmental pollution, and (iii) habitat fragmentation, resulting from over-exploitation and inappropriate use of natural resources. All six PAs examined have clear management goals and management decision-making systems however, their ME scores differ significantly. This research suggests that the administrative features of the individual PA influence management effectiveness and problems in the efficient implementation of management still need to be resolved.
KeywordsMETT Management effectiveness Protected areas Threats Mongolia Community participation
We express our gratitude to those who helped us to complete this research, particularly to the Biodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change Project (A Development Project of the Mongolian Ministry of Environment and Tourism co-financed by the Federal Republic of Germany through KfW), the park administrations’ personnel and local residents for the help in field in each case study.
This study was funded by the Department of Research and Innovation, National University of Mongolia.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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