Environmental Management

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 249–259 | Cite as

Evaluating the management effectiveness of protected areas in Mongolia using the management effectiveness tracking tool

  • Oyunchimeg Namsrai
  • Altansukh OchirEmail author
  • Oyungerel Baast
  • J. L. van Genderen
  • Andreas Muhar
  • Sanzheev Erdeni
  • Juanle Wang
  • Davaadorj Davaasuren
  • Sonomdagva Chonokhuu


The importance of management increases in the context of numerous and intensive inner and outer pressures on Protected Areas (PAs). The need to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas is increasing around the world. The ME assessment helps to improve the management of PAs and to develop a rational, long-term action plan. This study was conducted using the World Wildlife Fund for nature (WWF) Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools methodology (METT) to evaluate the ME of six PAs in central and eastern regions of Mongolia. The main purpose of this study was to assess ME and identify common threats of PAs across different natural zones and administrative areas in Mongolia. The results of this evaluation indicate that, the main threats faced by PAs in Mongolia are: (i) degradation of ecosystems, (ii) environmental pollution, and (iii) habitat fragmentation, resulting from over-exploitation and inappropriate use of natural resources. All six PAs examined have clear management goals and management decision-making systems however, their ME scores differ significantly. This research suggests that the administrative features of the individual PA influence management effectiveness and problems in the efficient implementation of management still need to be resolved.


METT Management effectiveness Protected areas Threats Mongolia Community participation 



We express our gratitude to those who helped us to complete this research, particularly to the Biodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change Project (A Development Project of the Mongolian Ministry of Environment and Tourism co-financed by the Federal Republic of Germany through KfW), the park administrations’ personnel and local residents for the help in field in each case study.


This study was funded by the Department of Research and Innovation, National University of Mongolia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oyunchimeg Namsrai
    • 1
  • Altansukh Ochir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oyungerel Baast
    • 2
  • J. L. van Genderen
    • 3
  • Andreas Muhar
    • 4
  • Sanzheev Erdeni
    • 5
  • Juanle Wang
    • 6
  • Davaadorj Davaasuren
    • 7
  • Sonomdagva Chonokhuu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Engineering and Applied SciencesNational University of MongoliaUlaanbaatarMongolia
  2. 2.Institute of Geography and Geoecology of the Academy of Science of MongoliaUlaanbaatarMongolia
  3. 3.Department of Earth Observation Science, Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC)University of TwenteEnschedeNetherlands
  4. 4.Institute of Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation PlanningBOKU University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  5. 5.Baikal Institute of Nature Management of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of ScienceUlan-UdeRussia
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information SystemInstitute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  7. 7.School of Art and SciencesNational University of MongoliaUlaanbaatarMongolia

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