Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 637–649 | Cite as

Determination of Appropriate Service Delivery Level for Quantitative Attributes of Household Toilets in Rural Settlements of India from Users’ Perspective

  • Mohammad Rashid
  • Debapratim Pandit
Article
  • 153 Downloads

Abstract

Improvement of quality of sanitation services in rural settlements is an important development goal in developing countries including India and accordingly several strategies are adopted which promote the demand and use of household toilets through creating awareness and providing subsidies to poor people for construction of household toilets with service-level standards specified from experts’ perspective. In many cases, users are unsatisfied with the quality of toilets constructed using subsidies and the same remain unused. Users’ satisfaction depends on their perceptions of service quality of individual attributes and overall service quality of the household toilets, which is an important determinant of sustainability and sustained use of toilets. This study aims to assess and benchmark the appropriate service delivery level for quantitative attributes of rural household toilets based on user perception. The service quality is determined with the help of level of service (LOS) scales developed using successive interval scaling technique, the zone of tolerance (ZOT), and users satisfaction level (USL) which relates service delivery levels with user satisfaction directly. The study finds that the service quality of most of the attributes of household toilets constructed using subsidies is perceived as poor. The results also suggest that most of the users expect to have a toilet with the service level of attributes ranging between LOS A and LOS B.

Keywords

Household toilets India Rural Service quality User perception 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, for providing the necessary facilities and opportunities to prepare this research paper and also the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), India, for funding the research program carried out in the institute.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Andrenacci N, Genovese A, Ragona R (2017) Determination of the level of service and customer crowding for electric charging stations through fuzzy models and simulation techniques. Appl Energy 208:97–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anteneh A, Kumie A (2010) Assessment of the impact of latrine utilization on diarrhoeal diseases in the rural community of Hulet Ejju Enessie Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region. Ethiop J Health Dev 24(2):110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthonj C, Rechenburg A, Kistemann T (2016) Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya. Int J Hyg Environ Health.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.06.006
  4. Arabani M, Pourzeynali S (2005) Fuzzy logic methodology to evaluate the service level of freeways basic segments. Iran J Sci Technol Trans B Eng 29(B3):281–288Google Scholar
  5. Arun A, Madhu E, Velmurugan S (2016) Selection of a suitable service measure and determination of LOS criteria for Indian multilane interurban highways: a methodological review. Transp Dev Econ 2(2):16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40890-016-0021-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnard S, Routray P, Majorin F, Peletz R, Boisson S, Sinha A, Clasen T (2013) Impact of Indian total sanitation campaign on latrine coverage and use: a cross-sectional study in Orissa three years following programme implementation. PLoS One.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071438
  7. Boisson S, Sosai P, Ray S, Routray P, Torondel B, Schmidt W-P, Bhanja B, Clasen T (2014) Promoting latrine construction and use in rural villages practicing open defecation: process evaluation in connection with a randomised controlled trial in Orissa, India. BMC Res Notes 7(1):486.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolaane B, Ikgopoleng H (2011) Towards improved sanitation: Constraints and opportunities in accessing waterborne sewerage in major villages of Botswana. Habitat Int 35:486–493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Census of India. (2011). Percentage of households to total households by amenities and assets. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/HLO/HL_PCA/Houselisting-housing-BR.html. Accessed 20 June 2015
  10. Chan FTS, Chan HK, Lau HCW, Ip RWL (2006) An AHP approach in benchmarking logistics performance of the postal industry. Benchmark Int J 13(6):636–661.  https://doi.org/10.1108/14635770610709031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chin KS, Pun KF, Lau HL (2001) Performance improvement of international roaming service. Benchmark: Int J 8(2):120–131.  https://doi.org/10.1108/14635770110389834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cirillo C, Eboli L, Mazzulla G (2011) On the asymmetric user perception of transit service quality. Int J Sustain Transp 5(4):216–232.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2010.494231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clasen T, Boisson S, Routray P, Cumming O, Jenkins M, Ensink JHJ, Bell M, Freeman MC, Peppin S, Schmidt W-P (2012) The effect of improved rural sanitation on diarrhoea and helminth infection: design of a cluster-randomized trial in Orissa, India. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 9(1):7–17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-7622-9-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. CMS (2011) Assessment Study of Impact and Sustainability of Nirmal Gram Puraskar. Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. Coffey D, Gupta A, Hathi P, Khurana N, Spears D, Srivastav N (2014). Revealed preference for open defecation: Evidence from a new survey in rural north India (No. 1). www.squatreport.in
  16. Correia AR, Wirasinghe SC (2005) Development of level of service standards for airport check-in facilities. Rev Transp 13(2):5–20Google Scholar
  17. Correia AR, Wirasinghe SC, de Barros AG (2008) A global index for level of service evaluation at airport passenger terminals. Transp Res Part E Logist Transp Rev 44:607–620.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tre.2007.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Correia AR, Wirasinghe SC, de Barros AG (2008) Overall level of service measures for airport passenger terminals. Transp Res Part A 42:330–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2007.10.009 Google Scholar
  19. Cullen R (2001) Perspectives on user satisfaction surveys. Libr Trends 49(4):662–686. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/8371Google Scholar
  20. Dantas A, Antunes R, Yamashita Y, Lamar M (2001) Marketing in public transportation: neural networks approach. In 9th World Conference in Transportation Research. University of Canterbury, Seol.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
  21. Das S, Pandit D (2015) Determination of level-of-service scale values for quantitative bus transit service attributes based on user perception. Transp A Transp Sci 11(1):1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23249935.2014.910563 Google Scholar
  22. Das S, Pandit D (2016a) Methodology to determine service delivery levels for public transportation. Transp Plan Technol 39(2):195–217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03081060.2015.1127541 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Das S, Pandit D (2016b) Qualitative assessment of public facilities: The “public bus”. TQM J 28(2):275–294.  https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-11-2014-0096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Witte K, Marques RC (2010) Designing performance incentives, an international benchmark study in the water sector. Cent Eur J Oper Res 18:189–220.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10100-009-0108-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. dell’ Olio L, Ibeas A, Cecín P (2010) Modelling user perception of bus transit quality. Transp Policy 17:388–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diallo MO, Hopkins DR, Kane MS, Niandou S, Amadou A, Kadri B et al. (2007) Household latrine use, maintenance and acceptability in rural Zinder, Niger. Int J Environ Health Res 17(6):443–452.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120701633529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donthu N, Hershberger EK, Osmonbekov T (2005) Benchmarking marketing productivity using data envelopment analysis. J Bus Res 58(11 SPEC. ISS.):1474–1482.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2004.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fang FC, Elefteriadou L, Pecheux KK, Pietrucha MT (2003) Using fuzzy clustering of user estimated delay to define level of service at signalized intersections. J Transp Eng 129(6):657–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Folz DH (2004) Service quality and benchmarking the performance of municipal services. Public Adm Rev 64(2):209–220.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2004.00362.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jenkins MW, Curtis V (2005) Achieving the “good life”: why some people want latrines in rural Benin. Social Sci & Med (1982) 61:2446–2459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.04.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jenkins MW, Scott B (2007) Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana. Social Sci & Med (1982) 64:2427–2442.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kvarnström E, McConville J, Bracken P, Johansson M, Fogde M (2011) The sanitation ladder – a need for a revamp? J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 1(1):3–12.  https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2011.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee H, Kim C (2014) Benchmarking of service quality with data envelopment analysis. Expert Syst Appl 41(8):3761–3768.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2013.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li Z, Cheng K-E, Wang Y, Hiltz SR (2001) Thurstone’s law of comparative judgment for group support. In Americas conference on information systems. Boston, MA. http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2001/48
  35. Mahmoud M, Hine J (2013) Using AHP to measure the perception gap between current and potential users of bus services. Transp Plan Technol 36(1):4–23.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03081060.2012.745316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mehta M, Mehta D, Immanuel A (2011). Benchmarking in emerging economies: The performance assessment system (PAS) project in India. In: Pi 2011 Conference, pp 1–18  https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.1748.4166
  37. Min H, Min H (2011) Benchmarking the service quality of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA: a longitudinal study. Benchmark: Int J 18(2):282–300.  https://doi.org/10.1108/14635771111121711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mistretta M, Goodwill JA, Gregg R, De Annuntis C (2009) Best practices in transit service planning. Report No. 21177772000. http://www.nctr.usf.edu/pdf/77720.pdf
  39. Montgomery Ma, Desai MM, Elimelech M (2010) Assessment of latrine use and quality and association with risk of trachoma in rural Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104(4):283–289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moriarty, P, Batchelor, C, Fonseca, C, Klutse, A, Naafs, A, Nyarko, K, et al. (2011) Ladders for assessing and costing water service delivery (No. 2). https://fr.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Moriarty-2011-Ladders.pdf
  41. Nawab B, Nyborg ILP, Esser KB, Jenssen PD (2006) Cultural preferences in designing ecological sanitation systems in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. J Environ Psychol 26:236–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pandit D, Das S (2013) A framework for determining commuter preference along a proposed bus rapid transit corridor. Procedia Social Behav Sci 104:894–903.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parasuraman A, Zeithmal VA, Berry LL (1988) SERVQUALASEAS–a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. J Retail 64(1):12–40Google Scholar
  44. Parthalain NMac, Shen Q, Jensen R (2010) A distance measure approach to exploring the rough set boundary region for attribute reduction. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng 22(3):305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pawlak Z, Skowron A (2007) Rough sets: some extensions. Inf Sci (Ny) 177:28–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2006.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Potter A, Klutse A, Snehalatha M, Batchelor C, Uandela A, Naafs A et al. (2010) Assessing sanitation service levels (No. 3). http://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Potter-2011-Assessing.pdf
  47. Ramani SV, SadreGhazi S, Duysters G (2012) On the diffusion of toilets as bottom of the pyramid innovation: Lessons from sanitation entrepreneurs. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 79:676–687.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2011.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rashid M, Pandit D (2017a) Determination of appropriate service quality attributes for household toilets in rural settlements of India based on user perception. Environ, Dev Sustain 19(4):1381–1406.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-016-9807-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rashid M, Pandit D (2017b) Service quality of household toilets in rural settlements of India: An assessment from users’ perspective. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev.  https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2017.054
  50. Reis N, Mollinga PP (2012) Water supply or “beautiful latrines”? Microcredit for rural water supply and sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Austrian J South East Asian Stud 5(1):10–29Google Scholar
  51. Rheinländer T, Samuelsen H, Dalsgaard A, Konradsen F (2010) Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam: does government promotion match community priorities? Soc Sci Med 71:994–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roma E, Philp K, Buckley C, Xulu S, Scott D (2013) User perceptions of urine diversion dehydration toilets: experiences from a cross-sectional study in eThekwini Municipality. Water S A 39(2):305–312Google Scholar
  53. Santos AC, Roberts Ja, Barreto ML, Cairncross S (2011) Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: a hybrid choice approach. Social Sci & Med (1982) 72:1325–1332.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Seol H, Choi J, Park G, Park Y (2007) A framework for benchmarking service process using data envelopment analysis and decision tree. Expert Syst Appl 32(2):432–440.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2005.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sherman HD, Zhu J (2006) Benchmarking with quality-adjusted DEA (Q-DEA) to seek lower-cost high-quality service: evidence from a U.S.bank application. Ann Oper Res 145(1):301–319.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-006-0037-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Snehalatha M, Anitha V (2012) Total sanitation campaign: is it on the right track? Progress and issues of TSC in Andhra Pradesh. J Rural Dev 31(2):173–192. http://www.nird.org.in/NIRD_Docs/JRD_apr-june12.pdfGoogle Scholar
  57. Snehalatha M, Reddy VR, Jayakumar N (2010) Assessing sanitation costs and services in Andhra Pradesh, India. In: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (ed) IRC symposium: pumps, pipes and promisesGoogle Scholar
  58. Somaratna SD, Peiris CN, Jayasundara C (2010) User expectation verses user perception of service quality in University libraries: a case study. In: ICULA. Colombo. http://archive.cmb.ac.lk/research/bitstream/70130/168/1/ccj4.pdf
  59. Transportation Research Board (TRB), Kittelson & Associates (2003) Transit capacity and quality of service manual. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 100, 2nd ed. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  60. Tremlet S, Binder D (2013) Evaluating the effectiveness of public finance for household sanitation in the state of Bihar, India, London. www.wateraid.org/evaluating effectiveness
  61. WHO, UNICEF (2008) Progress on drinking water and sanitation: Special focus on sanitation. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2008/en/
  62. Whittington D, Jeuland M, Barker K, Yuen Y (2012) Setting priorities, targeting subsidies among water, sanitation, and preventive health interventions in developing countries. World Dev 40(8):1546–1568.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Xionghong Z, Zirui S, Xue L (2013) Factor analysis of satisfactory degree on improvement of rural latrines in shanxi province—a perspective of social gender. Chin Stud 2(2):92–95.  https://doi.org/10.4236/chnstd.2013.22014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zeithaml VA, Berry LL, Parasuraman A (1993) The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service. J Acad Mark Sci 21(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070393211001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang L, Prevedouros PD (2011) User perceptions of signalised intersection level of service using fuzzy logic. Transportmetrica 7(4):279–296.  https://doi.org/10.1080/18128601003667460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Regional PlanningIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations