Environmental Management

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 466–484 | Cite as

Effects of Multi-Component Mixtures from Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) under Fully Realistic Condition

  • Pham Thai GiangEmail author
  • Viktoriia Burkina
  • Sidika Sakalli
  • Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
  • Tomas Randak
  • Roman Grabic
  • Katerina Grabicova
  • Ganna Fedorova
  • Olga Koba
  • Oksana Golovko
  • Jan Turek
  • Daniel Cerveny
  • Jitka Kolarova
  • Vladimir Zlabek


This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Biological pond Biological effects Endocrine disruption Integrate biomarker response 



Alanine aminotransferase




Alkaline phosphatase




Aspartate aminotransferase






Creatine kinase


Red blood cell


Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Water




Glutathione reductase


Glutathione S-tranferase


Glutathione peroxidase


Hematocrit value


Hemoglobin concentration


Inorganic phosphate




Lactate dehydrogenase


White blood cell 




Mean corpuscular hemoglobin


Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration


Mean erythrocyte volume


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Polar organic chemical integrative sampler


Sewage treatment plants


Pharmaceutical and personal care products


Superoxide dismutase


Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances


Total proteins







The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic—projects “CENAKVA” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), “CENAKVA Center Development” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0380), “CENAKVA II” (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), by the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice (No. 012/2016/Z) and by the Czech Science Foundation (No. GACR 15-04258S). The authors would also like to thank the Vodnany town and CEVAK a.s. for supporting this work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

267_2017_964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (209 kb)
Supplementary Material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pham Thai Giang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Viktoriia Burkina
    • 1
  • Sidika Sakalli
    • 1
  • Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
    • 2
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
    • 3
  • Tomas Randak
    • 1
  • Roman Grabic
    • 1
  • Katerina Grabicova
    • 1
  • Ganna Fedorova
    • 1
  • Olga Koba
    • 1
  • Oksana Golovko
    • 1
  • Jan Turek
    • 1
  • Daniel Cerveny
    • 1
  • Jitka Kolarova
    • 1
  • Vladimir Zlabek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses University of South Bohemia in Ceske BudejoviceVodňanyCzech Republic
  2. 2.Vetsuisse Faculty, Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Department of Infectious Diseases and PathobiologyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceAarhus UniversityTjeleDenmark

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