Environmental Management

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 31–48 | Cite as

Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

Article

Abstract

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

Keywords

Agriculture Transgenic crop GMO impact Herbicide Weed resistance Economics 

Abbreviations

APHIS

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

BMPs

Best management practices

GM

Genetically modified

GMHT

Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant

GMGT

Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant

GR

Glyphosate-resistant (for weeds)

GT

Glyphosate-tolerant (for crops)

HR

Herbicide-resistant (for weeds)

HT

Herbicide-tolerant (for crops)

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

USDA-ERS

USDA Economic Research Service

USDA-NASS

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service

USEPA

US Environmental Protection Agency

USGS

US Geological Survey

References

  1. Adler J (2011) The growing menace from superweeds. Sci Am 304:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrow (2014) Agrow Herbicides and Weed Control 2014. Informa Agra, London. www.agra-net.com
  3. APHIS (2014) Biotechnology Environmental Documents for Permits and Petitions. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wps/portal/aphis/ourfocus/biotechnology/sa_environmental_documents/. Accessed 18 July 2015
  4. Arbuckle JG Jr (2014) Iowa farm and rural life poll: farmer perspectives on pesticide resistance. Iowa State Un. Extension and Outreach, Report number: PM3070, AmesGoogle Scholar
  5. ASA (2013) Letter to APHIS, comments regarding the USDA intent to conduct an Environmental Impact Statement for several critical new technologies, including dicamba tolerant soybeans. American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO, 17/07/2013Google Scholar
  6. Asmus A, Clay SA, Ren C (2013) Summary of certified crop advisors’ response to a weed resistance survey. Agron J 105:1160–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagavathiannan MV, Norsworthy JK, Scott RC, Barber TL (2013) The spread of herbicide-resistant weeds: what should growers know?. University of Arkansas, Little RockGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker NT, Stone WW (2015) Estimated annual agricultural pesticide use for counties of the conterminous United States, 2008–2012. USGS Data Series 907, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds907
  9. Bark T et al (2014) Letter to EPA on “Dow AgroSciences application to amend their 2,4-D choline salt herbicide for use on 2,4-D tolerant corn and soybeans”, Docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2014-0195 30 June 2014. http://cdn.ewg.org/sites/default/files/testimony/LetterToEPA_Enlist_MedSci_FINAL_06_30_14_0.pdf
  10. Barker D (2014) Genetically engineered (GE) crops: a misguided strategy for the twenty-first century? Development 57(2):192–200. doi:10.1057/dev.2014.68 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Battaglin WA, Meyer MT, Kuivila KM, Dietze JE (2014) Glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA occur frequently and widely in US soils, surface water, groundwater, and precipitation. J Am Water Resour Assoc 50(2):275–290. doi:10.1111/jawr.12159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beckie HJ (2011) Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate. Pest Manag Sci 67(9):1037–1048Google Scholar
  13. Beckie HJ, Hall LM (2014) Genetically-modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops a two-edged sword? An Americas perspective on development and effect on weed management. Crop Prot 66:40–45. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2014.08.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beckie HJ, Tardif FJ (2012) Herbicide cross resistance in weeds. Crop Prot 35:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Behrens MR, Mutlu N, Chakraborty S et al (2007) Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science 316(5828):1185–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benbrook CM (2012) Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US, the first sixteen years. Environ Sci Eur 24(24):2190–4715Google Scholar
  17. Beyond Pesticides (2014) Next Up: 2,4-D Weed and insect resistance caused by genetically engineered crop failure treadmill. Beyond Pesticides, Washington DC. http://www.beyondpesticides.org/infoservices/pesticidesandyou/documents/24DandGEcrops.pdf. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  18. Binimelis R, Pengue W, Monterroso I (2009) Transgenic treadmill: responses to the emergence and spread of glyphosate-resistant Johnsongrass in Argentina. Geoforum 40:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boerboom C, Owen M Eds (2007) National Glyphosate Stewardship Forum II: A Call to Action. St Louis, MO, 20–21/03/2007. http://www.weeds.iastate.edu/mgmt/2007/NGSFII_final.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2015
  20. Bøhn T, Cuhra M, Traavik T, Sanden M, Fagan J, Primicerio R (2014) Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in roundup ready GM soybeans. Food Chem 153:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bonny S (2008) Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybean in the USA: adoption factors, impacts and prospects. Agron Sustain Dev 28(1):21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonny S (2011) Herbicide-tolerant transgenic soybean over 15 years of cultivation: pesticide use, weed resistance, and some economic issues. The case of the USA. Sustainability 3(9):1302–1322. doi:10.3390/su3091302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bourguet D et al (2013) Heterogeneity of selection and the evolution of resistance. Trends Ecol Evol 28(2):110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA (2004) Glyphosate poisoning. Toxicol Rev 23(3):159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bradshaw LD, Padgette SR, Kimball SL, Wells BH (1997) Perspectives on glyphosate resistance. Weed Technol 11(1):189–198. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3988252
  26. Buhler DD (2002) 50th Anniversary, Invited Article: challenges and opportunities for integrated weed management. Weed Sci 50(3):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. CAST (2012) Herbicide-resistant weeds threaten soil conservation gains: finding a balance for soil and farm sustainability. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, AmesGoogle Scholar
  28. Center for Food Safety, Consumers Union, Environmental Working Group, Food & Water Watch, Friends of the Earth, Just Label It, Natural Resources Defense Council, Pesticide Action Network North America (2015) Letter to EPA to weigh heavily the decision by WHO to categorize glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (…), 26/03/2015Google Scholar
  29. Cerdeira AL, Duke SO (2006) The current status and environmental impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops. J Environ Qual 35(5):1633–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Consumer Reports (2015) From crop to table report pesticide use in produce. Consumer Reports Magazine, May 2015, Special Section. https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2015/05/index.htm
  31. Coombs A (2012) Revenge of the weeds. Scientist 20/05/2012Google Scholar
  32. Coupe RH, Barlow JR, Capel PD (2012) Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape. Environ Dev 4:88–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cowan R, Gunby P (1996) Sprayed to death: path dependence lock-in and pest control strategies. Econ J 106:521–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Croplife (2015) Plant biotechnology pipeline. Croplife (Global federation representing the plant science industry), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  35. Duke SO (2012) Why have no new herbicide modes of action appeared in recent years? Pest Manag Sci 68(4):505–512. doi:10.1002/ps.2333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duke SO, Powles SB (2008) Glyphosate: a once-in-a-century herbicide. Pest Manag Sci 64(4):319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Duke SO, Powles SB (2009) Glyphosate-resistant crops and weeds: now and in the future. AgBioForum 12(3&4):346–357Google Scholar
  38. Dupraz E (2012) Note, Monsanto and the Quasi-Per Se illegal rule for bundled discounts. Vermont Law Rev 37(1):203–237Google Scholar
  39. Edwards CB, Jordan DL, Owen MD et al (2014) Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant crop systems in the United States. Economics of herbicide resistance management practices in a 5 year field-scale study. Pest Manag Sci 70(12):1924–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Egan JK, Barlow KM, Mortensen DA (2014) A meta-analysis on the effects of 24-D and Dicamba drift on soybean and cotton. Weed Sci 62(1):193–206. doi:10.1614/WS-D-13-00025.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ehler LE (2006) Integrated pest management (IPM): definition historical development and implementation and the other IPM. Pest Manag Sci 62:787–789. doi:10.1002/ps.1247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Erickson FL, Lemaux PG (2000) Issues related to the development and use of engineered herbicide-tolerant crops in California. Calif Weed Sci Soc Conf Proc 52:45–53Google Scholar
  43. Ervin DE, Jussaume R (2014) Integrating social science into managing herbicide-resistant weeds and associated environmental impacts. Weed Sci 62(2):403–414. doi:10.1614/WS-D-13-00085.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ervin DE et al (2010) The impact of genetically engineered crops on farm sustainability in the United States. NAP, National Research Council, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  45. EWG (2015) GMO Foods. Environmental Working Group. Washington DC http://www.ewg.org/key-issues/food/gmo-foods. Accessed 24 July 2015
  46. FAO (2004). The state of food and agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology. Meeting the needs of the poor? FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  47. Feng PCC et al (2010) Glyphosate-resistant crops: developing the next generation products. In: Nandula VK (ed) op. cit. pp 45–66Google Scholar
  48. Fernandez-Cornejo J, Wechsler S, Livingston M, Mitchell L (2014) Genetically engineered crops in the United States. ERR-162. USDA-ERSGoogle Scholar
  49. FoE (2015) Spinning food: how food industry front groups and covert communications are shaping the story of food. Friends of the Earth US, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Freese B (2014a) Comments to USDA’s APHIS on the Agency’s draft Environmental impact statement on Monsanto Petitions (10-188-01p and 12-185-01p) for determinations of nonregulated status for Dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton varieties. Center for Food Safety, Washington DC, +appendixGoogle Scholar
  51. Freese B (2014b) Comments to USDA’s APHIS on Dow AgroSciences LLC draft environmental impact statement for determinations of nonregulated status of herbicide resistant corn and soybean. Center for Food Safety, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  52. Frisvold GB, Reeves JM (2010) Resistance management and sustainable use of agricultural biotechnology. AgBioForum 13(4):343–359Google Scholar
  53. Frisvold GB, Reeves JM (2014) Herbicide resistant crops and weeds: implications for herbicide use and weed management. In: Pimentel D, Peshin R (eds) Integrated pest management: pesticide problems 3(3). Springer, Netherlands, pp 331–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gerwick C (2010) Thirty years of herbicide discovery: surveying the past and contemplating the future. Agrow World Crop Prot News 600:vii–ix, 24/09/2010Google Scholar
  55. Givens WA, Shaw DR, Kruger GR et al (2009) Survey of tillage trends following the adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol 23:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Givens WA, Shaw DR, Newman ME, Weller SC et al (2011) Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant cropping systems in the United States. Part 3: Grower awareness, information sources, experiences and management practices regarding glyphosate-resistant weeds. Pest Manag Sci 67:758–770. doi:10.1002/ps.2178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grand View Research (2014) Glyphosate market analysis by application (Conventional Crops, GM Crops) and segment forecasts to 2020. Grand View Research, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  58. Green JM (2014) Current state of herbicides in herbicide-resistant crops. Pest Manag Sci 70(9):1351–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Green JM, Owen MDK (2011) Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management. J Agr Food Chem 59(11):5819–5829. doi:10.1021/jf101286h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gressel J (2010) Global advances in weed management. J Agric Sci 149:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Grube A, Donaldson D, Kiely T, Wu L (2011) Pesticides industry sales and usage 2006 and 2007 market estimates. USEPA Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  62. Guyton KZ et al (2015) Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate. Lancet Oncol. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70134-8 Google Scholar
  63. Harker KN (2013) Slowing weed evolution with integrated weed management. Can J Plant Sci 93(5):759–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harker KN, O’Donovan JT (2013) Recent weed control, weed management, and integrated weed management. Weed Technol 27(1):1–11. doi:10.1614/WT-D-12-00109.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Harker KN, O’Donovan JT, Blackshaw RE, Beckie HJ, Mallory-Smith C, Maxwell BD (2012) Editorial our view. Weed Sci 60(2):143–144. doi:10.1614/WS-D-11-00177.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hartzler B (1998) Are Roundup Ready weeds in your future? Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy. http://www.weeds.iastate.edu/mgmt/qtr98-4/roundupfuture.htm. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  67. Heap I (1997) The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Pestic Sci 51(3):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heap I (2013) Overview of global herbicide resistance cases and lessons learnt. Communication at the International Conference “Global Herbicide Resistance Challenge” Perth, Australia, 18–22/02/2013Google Scholar
  69. Heap I (2014) Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds. Pest Manag Sci 70(9):1306–1315. doi:10.1002/ps.3696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heap I (2015) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.org. Accessed 22 July 2015
  71. HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) (2015a). 2,4-D. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda (MD). http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  72. HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) (2015b). Dicamba. National Library of Medicine Bethesda (MD), http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  73. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2015) Vol. 112: Some organophosphate insecticides and herbicides: tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate. IARC Working Group. Lyon, 3-10/03/2015. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem HumGoogle Scholar
  74. James C (2014 and previous years) Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014. ISAAA Briefs (49). ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications), Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  75. Johnson WG, Owen MDK, Kruger GR et al (2009) US farmer awareness of glyphosate-resistant weeds and resistance management strategies. Weed Technol 23:308–312. doi:10.1614/WT-08-181.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Just Label It (2015) What are genetically engineered foods/GMOs? Related pages. Just Label It, Washington DC. http://www.justlabelit.org/about-ge-foods-center/about-gmo-foods/. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  77. Kleter GA, Bhula R, Bodnaruk K, Carazo E, Felsot AS, Harris CA et al (2007) Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective. Pest Manag Sci 63(11):1107–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kling J (2014) Labeling for better or worse. Nat Biotechnol 32(12):1180–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Klümper W, Qaim M (2014) A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLoS One 9(11):e111629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Knezevic SZ (2014) Integrated weed management in soybean. In: Chauhan BS, Mahajan G (eds) Recent advances in weed management. Springer, New York, pp 223–237Google Scholar
  81. Kniss A (2013) Where are the super weeds? Control freaks, 1/05/2013. Wyoming weed science. http://weedcontrolfreaks.com/2013/05/superweed/
  82. Kniss AR, Coburn CW (2015) Quantitative evaluation of the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) for comparing herbicides. PLoS One 10(6):e0131200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kovach J et al (1992) A method to measure the environmental impact of pesticides. New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin No. 139, Cornell Univ., IthacaGoogle Scholar
  84. Kraehmer H et al (2014) Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements. Plant Physiol 166(3):1132–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Livingston M, Fernandez-Cornejo J, Unger J, Osteen C, Schimmelpfennig D, Park T, Lambert D (2015) The economics of glyphosate resistance management in corn and soybean production. USDA-ERS, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  86. Loomis D et al (2015) Carcinogenicity of lindane, DDT, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Lancet Oncol, 22/06/2015. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00081-9
  87. McFadden BR, Lusk JL (2013) Effects of cost and campaign advertising on support for California’s Proposition 37. J Agr Resour Econ 38(2):174–186Google Scholar
  88. Miller P (2010) Are “superweeds’’ an outgrowth of USDA biotech policy? (part ii). Written Statement of PW Miller on behalf of Monsanto Company for the Sept 30, 2010. Hearing of the Domestic Policy Subcommittee of the US House of Representatives Oversight & Government Reform Committee, 111 Congress, 2nd session. https://oversight.house.gov/hearing/are-superweeds-an-outgrowth-of-usda-biotech-policy-part-ii/. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  89. Monsanto (2003a) Roundup ready soybeans. Brochure, Monsanto, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  90. Monsanto (2003b) Managing weed resistance. The facts. Monsanto, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  91. Mortensen D, Egan JF, Maxwell BD, Ryan MR, Smith RG (2012) Navigating a critical juncture for sustainable weed management. Bioscience 62(1):75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nandula VK (2010) Glyphosate resistance in crops and weeds: history development and management. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nature’s Editorial (2014) A growing problem. Nature 510:187. doi:10.1038/510187a
  94. Neve P, Diggle AJ, Smith FP, Powles SB (2003) Simulating evolution of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum II: past, present and future glyphosate use in Australian cropping. Weed Res 43(6):418–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Norsworthy JK, Ward SM, Shaw DR et al (2012) Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Sci 60(sp1):31–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Osteen CD, Fernandez-Cornejo J (2013) Economic and policy issues of US agricultural pesticide use trends. Pest Manag Sci 69(9):1001–1025. doi:10.1002/ps.3529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Owen MDK, Young BG, Shaw DR et al (2011) Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant crop systems in the United States. Part 2: Perspectives. Pest Manag Sci 67(7):747–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Owen MDK, Beckie HJ, Leeson JY, Norsworthy JK, Steckel LE (2014) Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada. Pest Manag Sci 71:357–376. doi:10.1002/ps.3928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Phillips McDougall (2010) The cost of new agrochemical product discovery, development and registration in 1995, 2000 and 2005–2008. R&D expenditure in 2007 and expectations for 2012. Consultancy study for CropLife America and the European Crop Protection Association. Phillips McDougall, Midlothian, UKGoogle Scholar
  100. Powles SB, Yu Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:317–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Powles SB, Lorraine-Colwill DF, Dellow JJ, Preston C (1998) Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in Australia. Weed Sci 46(5):604–607. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4045968
  102. Price AJ, Balkcom KS, Culpepper SA, Kelton JA, Nichols RL, Schomberg H (2011) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth: a threat to conservation tillage. J Soil Water Conserv 66(4):265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Prince JM, Shaw DR, Givens WA et al (2012) Benchmark study: III. Survey on changing herbicide use patterns in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Weed Technol 26(3):536–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Public comments (2014) Comments on Docket No. APHIS-2013-043 regarding Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans and Cotton (MON 87708 and MON 88701). http://www.regulations.gov/. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  105. Public comments (2015) Evaluation of 2,4-D choline salt herbicide on enlist corn and soybeans. Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2014-0195. US EPA. http://www.regulations.gov/. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  106. Puente M, Darnall N, Forkner RE (2011) Assessing integrated pest management adoption: measurement problems and policy implications. Environ Manag 48(5):1013–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rabobank International (2012) Nature finds a way: the rising cost of herbicide-resistant weeds in the U.S. Rabo AgFocus, JuneGoogle Scholar
  108. Reddy KN (2001) Glyphosate-resistant soybean as a weed management tool: opportunities and challenges. Weed Biol Manag 1(4):193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Reuters (2015). [Corrected] US regulators may recommend testing food for glyphosate residues. Reuters, 17/04/2015Google Scholar
  110. Riar DS, Norsworthy JK, Steckel LE et al (2013) Adoption of best management practices for herbicide-resistant weeds in Midsouthern United States cotton, rice, and soybean. Weed Technol 27(4):788–797. doi:10.1614/WT-D-13-00087.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ricroch AE, Hénard-Damave MC (2015) Next biotech plants: new traits crops developers and technologies for addressing global challenges. Crit Rev Biotechnol. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1004521 Google Scholar
  112. Roulac JW (2015) Food trends of today & tomorrow. Presentation at The Food Leaders Summit 2015, 27–29/04/2015, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  113. Service RF (2007) A growing threat down on the farm. Science 316(5828):114–117. doi:10.1126/science.316.5828.1114 Google Scholar
  114. Service RF (2013) What happens when weed killers stop killing? Science 341(6152):1329. doi:10.1126/science.341.6152.1329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shaner DL (2000) The impact of glyphosate tolerant crops on the use of other herbicides and on resistance management. Pest Manag Sci 56(4):320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shaner DL, Beckie HJ (2014) The future for weed control and technology. Pest Manag Sci 70(9):1329–1339. doi:10.1002/ps.3706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sosnoskie LM, Culpepper AS (2014) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) increases herbicide use, tillage, and hand-weeding in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 62(2):393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Southwest Farm Press (2001) No-till know-how with Dr. John Bradley. 1/02/2001. http://southeastfarmpress.com/no-till-know-how-dr-john-bradley
  119. Stokstad E (2013) The war against weeds down under. Science 341(6147):734–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stratus Ag Research (2013) Glyphosate resistant weeds—intensifying. Stratus Ag Research, GuelphGoogle Scholar
  121. Stratus Ag Research (2014) Ag retailers play a critical role in best management practices for herbicides. Stratus Ag Research, Guelph, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  122. Székács A, Darvas B (2012) Forty years with glyphosate. In: Naguib Hasaneen M (ed) Herbicides: properties, synthesis and control of weeds. InTechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia. pp 247–284. http://www.intechopen.com/books/herbicides-properties-synthesis-and-control-of-weeds/forty-years-with-glyphosate
  123. Tabashnik BE, Mota-Sanchez D, Whalon ME, Hollingworth RM, Carrière Y (2014) Defining terms for proactive management of resistance to Bt crops and pesticides. J Econ Entomol 107(2):496–507. doi:10.1603/EC13458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thelin GP, Stone WW (2013) Estimation of annual agricultural pesticide use for counties of the conterminous United States, 1992–2009. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5009Google Scholar
  125. USDA-APHIS (2015) Biotechnology. Petitions for Determination of Nonregulated Status. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/petitions_table_pending.shtml. Accessed 24 July 2015
  126. USDA-ERS (2014). ARMS farm financial and crop production practices, database, http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/arms-farm-financial-and-crop-production-practices/tailored-reports-crop-production-practices.aspx Accessed 1 Jul 2015
  127. USDA-ERS (2015) Adoption of genetically engineered crops in the US. USDA-ERS. www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us.aspx. Accessed 10 July 2015
  128. USDA-NASS (1991–2013) Agricultural chemical usage, field crops summary. USDA ESMIS (Economics, Statistics and Market Information System), Mann Library, Cornell University, 1990–2013. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1560. Accessed 1 July 2015
  129. USDA-NASS (2013) Agricultural Chemical Use Program. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Chemical_Use/. Accessed 1 July 2015
  130. USDA-NASS (2014) Agricultural Resource Management Survey. US Soybean Industry. NASS Highlights. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Ag_Resource_Management/ARMS_Soybeans_Factsheet/index.asp. Accessed 10 Apr 2015
  131. USEPA (1993) RED (Reregistration Eligibility Decision) Fact: Glyphosate. EPA-738-F-93-011, Sept. 1993. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, US GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  132. USEPA (2014) Final Registration of Enlist DuoTM Herbicide. 15/10/2014Google Scholar
  133. USEPA (2015) Glyphosate. Regulatory Actions. USEPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. http://iaspub.epa.gov/apex/pesticides/f?p=CHEMICALSEARCH:31:0::NO:1,3,31,7,12,25:P3_XCHEMICAL_ID:2477. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  134. USGS (2015a) Pesticide National Synthesis Project. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. USGS. https://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/about.php. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  135. USGS (2015b) Pesticide Use Maps. Pesticide National Synthesis Project. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. USGS. https://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/compound_listing.php. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  136. USGS (2015c) Pesticide Use Maps: Glyphosate. Pesticide National Synthesis Project. NAWQA Program. USGS. https://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/show_map.php?year=2012&map=GLYPHOSATE&hilo=L&disp=Glyphosate. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
  137. Vencill WK, Nichols RL, Webster TM et al (2012) Herbicide resistance: Toward an understanding of resistance development and the impact of herbicide-resistant crops. Weed Sci 60(sp1):2–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Waltz E (2010) Glyphosate resistance threatens Roundup hegemony. Nat Biotechnol 28(6):537–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Waltz E (2015) Monsanto adds dicamba to its cache to counter weed threat. Nat Biotechnol 33(4):328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ward SM, Webster TM, Steckel LE (2013) Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri): a review. Weed Technol 27(1):12–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Webster TM, Sosnoskie LM (2010) Loss of glyphosate efficacy: a changing weed spectrum in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 58(1):73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wikipedia (2015a) Genetically modified food controversies. Wikipedia, 23 June 2015Google Scholar
  143. Wikipedia (2015b) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wikipedia, 27 June 2015Google Scholar
  144. Wikipedia (2015c) Dicamba. Wikipedia, 27 June 2015Google Scholar
  145. Wilson L (2015) Trust us, it’s harmless. Could the popular herbicide glyphosate be destroying our health? Natural Grocers, April 2015. https://www.naturalgrocers.com/nutrition-and-health/nutrition-library/nutrition-article/trust-us-its-harmless/
  146. WSSA (2013) Letter to APHIS. Re: Notice of Intent to Prepare an EIS for determination of Nonregulated Status for 2,4-D resistant corn and soybeans and for dicamba resistant cotton and soybeans. WSSA (Weed Science Society of America), Lawrence, KSGoogle Scholar
  147. WSSA (2014) Resistance Summit II, 2nd National Summit on Strategies to Manage Herbicide-Resistant Weeds. Washington, DC, 10/09/2014. http://wssa.net/weed/resistance-summit-ii/. Accessed 10 Apr 2015

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA, UMR210 Economie publiqueGrignonFrance
  2. 2.AgroParisTech, UMR Economie publiqueGrignonFrance

Personalised recommendations