Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 884–899 | Cite as

Opportunities and Strategies to Incorporate Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Decision Support Tools into Planning and Decision Making in Hawai‘i

  • Leah L. Bremer
  • Jade M. S. Delevaux
  • James J. K. Leary
  • Linda J. Cox
  • Kirsten L. L. Oleson
Article

Abstract

Incorporating ecosystem services into management decisions is a promising means to link conservation and human well-being. Nonetheless, planning and management in Hawai‘i, a state with highly valued natural capital, has yet to broadly utilize an ecosystem service approach. We conducted a stakeholder assessment, based on semi-structured interviews, with terrestrial (n = 26) and marine (n = 27) natural resource managers across the State of Hawai‘i to understand the current use of ecosystem services (ES) knowledge and decision support tools and whether, how, and under what contexts, further development would potentially be useful. We found that ES knowledge and tools customized to Hawai‘i could be useful for communication and outreach, justifying management decisions, and spatial planning. Greater incorporation of this approach is clearly desired and has a strong potential to contribute to more sustainable decision making and planning in Hawai‘i and other oceanic island systems. However, the unique biophysical, socio-economic, and cultural context of Hawai‘i, and other island systems, will require substantial adaptation of existing ES tools. Based on our findings, we identified four key opportunities for the use of ES knowledge and tools in Hawai‘i: (1) linking native forest protection to watershed health; (2) supporting sustainable agriculture; (3) facilitating ridge-to-reef management; and (4) supporting statewide terrestrial and marine spatial planning. Given the interest expressed by natural resource managers, we envision broad adoption of ES knowledge and decision support tools if knowledge and tools are tailored to the Hawaiian context and coupled with adequate outreach and training.

Keywords

Ecosystem services Decision support tool Hawai‘i Modeling Conservation Integrated management 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work would not have been possible without funding from USDA Grants Hatch HAW01125-H and McIntire-Stennis HAW01120-M. We would also like to thank all of the natural resource managers and decision makers who generously shared their time and expertise with us during the interview process. We thank Creighton Litton and Chris Lepczyk for their input on the interview questionnaires and Lisa Mandle for helpful input on a draft of the manuscript. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions that were integrated to improve the manuscript.

Supplementary material

267_2014_426_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 kb)

References

  1. Arkema KK, Guannel G, Verutes G, Wood SA, Guerry A, Ruckelshaus M, Kareiva P, Lacayo M, Silver JM (2013) Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms Nature. Clim Chang 3:913–918. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagstad KJ, Semmens DJ, Waage S, Winthrop R (2013) A comparative assessment of decision-support tools for ecosystem services quantification and valuation. Ecosyst Serv 5:27–39. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berbés-Blázquez M (2012) A participatory assessment of ecosystem services and human wellbeing in rural Costa Rica using photo-voice. Environ Manage 49:862–875. doi: 10.1007/s00267-012-9822-9
  4. Braat LC, de Groot R (2012) The ecosystem services agenda: bridging the worlds of natural science and economics, conservation and development, and public and private policy. Ecosyst Serv 1:4–15. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brauman KA, Freyberg DL, Daily GC (2012) Land cover effects on groundwater recharge in the tropics: ecohydrologic mechanisms. Ecohydrology 5:435–444. doi: 10.1002/eco.236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burnett K, Wada C (2014) Optimal groundwater management where recharge is declining: a method for valuing the recharge benefits of watershed conservation. Environ Econ Policy StudGoogle Scholar
  7. Burnett K, Kaiser B, Pitafi BA, Roumasset J (2006) Prevention, eradication, and containment of invasive species: illustrations from Hawaii. Agric Res Econ Rev 35:63Google Scholar
  8. Burnett KM, D’Evelyn S, Kaiser BA, Nantamanasikarn P, Roumasset JA (2008) Beyond the lamppost: optimal prevention and control of the brown tree snake in Hawaii. Ecol Econ 67:66–74. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA, Kinzig AP, Daily GC, Loreau M, Grace JB, Larigauderie A, Srivastava DS, Naeem S (2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486:59–67. doi: 10.1038/nature11148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrier SD, Bruland GL, Cox LJ, Lepczyk CA (2012) The perceptions of coastal resource managers in Hawai‘i: the current situation and outlook for the future. Ocean Coast Manag 69:291–298. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.07.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cesar HSJ, van Beukering P (2004) Economic valuation of the coral reefs of Hawai‘i. Pac Sci 58:231–242. doi: 10.1353/psc.2004.0014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan KMA, Shaw MR, Cameron DR, Underwood EC, Daily GC (2006) Conservation planning for ecosystem services. Plos Biol 4:2138–2152. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040379 Google Scholar
  13. Chan KMA, Guerry AD, Balvanera P, Klain S, Satterfield T, Basurto X, Bostrom A, Chuenpagdee R, Gould R, Halpern BS, Hannahs N, Levine J, Norton B, Ruckelshaus M, Russell R, Tam J, Woodside U (2012) Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. Bioscience 62:744–756. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cinner JE, Aswani S (2007) Integrating customary management into marine conservation. Biol Conserv 140:201–216. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.08.008
  15. Conry P (2010) Hawaii Statewide Assessment of Forest Conditions and Resource Strategy 2010. Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  16. Daily CD, Polasky S, Goldstein J, Kareiva PM, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ricketts TH, Salzman J, Shallenberger R (2009) Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Front Ecol Environ 7:21–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/080025
  17. DeMartini E, Jokiel P, Beets J, Stender Y, Storlazzi C, Minton D, Conklin E (2013) Terrigenous sediment impact on coral recruitment and growth affects the use of coral habitat by recruit parrotfishes (F. Scaridae). J Coastal Conserv 17(3):417–429. doi: 10.1007/s11852-013-0247-2
  18. Derrickson SAK, Robotham MP, Olive SG, Evensen CL (2002) Watershed management and policy in Hawaii: coming full circle. J Am Water Resour Assoc 38:563–576. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2002.tb04338.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DLNR (2011) The rain follows the forest: a plan to replenish Hawaii‘s source of water. Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  20. Egoh B, Reyers B, Rouget M, Richardson DM, Le Maitre DC, van Jaarsveld AS (2008) Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 127:135–140. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farley KA, Bremer LL, Harden CP, Hartsig J (2013) Changes in carbon storage under alternative land uses in biodiverse Andean grasslands: implications for payment for ecosystem services. Conserv Lett 6:21–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00267.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK, Helkowski JH, Holloway T, Howard EA, Kucharik CJ, Monfreda C, Patz JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Snyder PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574. doi: 10.1126/science.1111772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Friedlander A, Aeby G, Brainard R, Brown E, Chaston K, Clark A, McGowan P, Montgomery T, Walsh W, Williams I, Wiltse W (2008) The state of coral reef ecosystems of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Coral Report 2008, NOAAGoogle Scholar
  24. Goldman-Benner RL, Benitez S, Boucher T, Calvache A, Daily G, Kareiva P, Kroeger T, Ramos A (2012) Water funds and payments for ecosystem services: practice learns from theory and theory can learn from practice. Oryx 46:55–63. doi: 10.1017/s0030605311001050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldstein JH, Pejchar L, Daily GC (2008) Using return-on-investment to guide restoration: a case study from Hawaii. Conserv Lett 1:236–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00031.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldstein JH, Caldarone G, Duarte TK, Ennaanay D, Hannahs N, Mendoza G, Polasky S, Wolny S, Daily GC (2012) Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:7565–7570. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201040109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gould RK, Ardoin NM, Woodside U, Satterfield T, Hannahs N, Daily GC (2014a) The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai‘i. Ecol Soc 19(3):55. doi: 10.5751/ES-06893-190355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gould RK, Klain S, Ardoin NM, Woodside U, Hannahs N, Satterfield T, Chan KMA, Daily GC (2014b) A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values using a cultural ecosystem services frame. Conserv BiolGoogle Scholar
  29. Grantham HS, McLeod E, Brooks A, Jupiter SD, Hardcastle J, Richardson AJ, Watson JEM (2011) Ecosystem-based adaptation in marine ecosystems of tropical Oceania in response to climate change. Pac Conserv Biol 17(3):241Google Scholar
  30. Guerry AD, Ruckelshaus MH, Arkema KK, Bernhardt JR, Guannel G, Kim C-K, Marsik M, Papenfus M, Toft JE, Verutes G, Wood SA, Beck M, Chan F, Chan KMA, Gelfenbaum G, Gold BD, Halpern BS, Labiosa WB, Lester SE, Levin PS, McField M, Pinsky ML, Plummer M, Polasky S, Ruggiero P, Sutherland DA, Tallis H, Day A, Spencer J (2012) Modeling benefits from nature: using ecosystem services to inform coastal and marine spatial planning. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Ser Manag 8:107–121. doi: 10.1080/21513732.2011.647835 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gutrich J, Donovan D, Finucane M, Focht W, Hitzhusen F, Manopimoke S, McCauley D, Norton B, Sabatier P, Salzman J, Sasmitawidjaja V (2005) Science in the public process of ecosystem management: lessons from Hawaii, Southeast Asia, Africa and the US Mainland. J Environ Manag 76:197–209. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.01.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hernandez-Morcillo M, Plieninger T, Bieling C (2013) An empirical review of cultural ecosystem service indicators. Ecol Indic 29:434–444. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Higuchi J (2008) Propagating cultural kipuka: the obstacles and opportunities of establishing a community-based subsistence fishing area University of Hawaii Law Review 31: 1–30Google Scholar
  34. Hubbard DW (2009) The failure of risk management: why it’s broken and how to fix it. John Wiley and Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  35. Hulse D, Branscomb A, Enright C, Bolte J (2009) Anticipating floodplain trajectories: a comparison of two alternative futures approaches. Landsc Ecol 24:1067–1090. doi: 10.1007/s10980-008-9255-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jokiel P, Rodgers K, Walsh W, Polhemus D, Wilhelm T (2011) Marine resource management in the Hawaiian archipelago: the traditional Hawaiian system in relation to the western approach. J Mar Biol. doi:  10.1155/2011/151682
  37. Jupiter SD, Egli DP (2010) Ecosystem-based management in Fiji: successes and challenges after five years of implementation. J Mar Biol 2011Google Scholar
  38. Juvik S, Juvik J (1998) Atlas of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaiser BA (2014) Watershed conservation in the long run. Ecosystems 17:698–719. doi: 10.1007/s10021-014-9754-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaiser BA, Burnett KM (2010) Spatial economic analysis of early detection and rapid response strategies for an invasive species. Resour Energy Econ 32:566–585. doi: 10.1016/j.reseneeco.2010.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaiser B, Roumasset J (2002) Valuing indirect ecosystem services: the case of tropical watersheds. Environ Dev Econ 7:701–714. doi: 10.1017/S1355770X02000426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaiser B, Pitafi B, Roumasset J, Burnett K (2008) The economic value of watershed conservation. In: Fares A, Alkadi AL (eds) Coastal watershed management. WIT Press, Billerica, pp 299–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kelly M (1997) Ahupua’a: a Kanaka Maoli system of natural resources enhancement, utilization and preservation. Ethnic Studies Dept University of Hawai‘i, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  44. Kikiloi K (2010) Rebirth of an archipelago: sustaining a Hawaiian cultural identity for people and homeland. Hulili: Multidiscip Res Hawaii Well Being 6:73–114Google Scholar
  45. Kumar M, Kumar P (2008) Valuation of the ecosystem services: a psycho-cultural perspective. Ecol Econ 64:808–819. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kurashima N, Kirch PV (2011) Geospatial modeling of pre-contact Hawaiian production systems on Moloka'i Island, Hawaiian Islands. J Archaeol Sci 38(12):3662–3674. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2011.08.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laurans Y, Pascal N, Binet T, Brander L, Clua E, David G, Rojat D, Seidl A (2013) Economic valuation of ecosystem services from coral reefs in the South Pacific: taking stock of recent experience. J Environ Manag 116:135–144. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.11.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leh MDK, Matlock MD, Cummings EC, Nalley LL (2013) Quantifying and mapping multiple ecosystem services change in West Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 165:6–18. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2012.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MA (2005) Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: an assessment series (four volumes and summary). Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  50. MacKenzie R (2013) A tropical decision support tool to enhance management of Pacific Island ecosystems for resilience to climate change and invasive species. Paper presented at the Hawai‘i Conservation Conference Honolulu, Hawai‘i, July 16, 2013Google Scholar
  51. Maes J, Hauck J, Paracchini ML, Ratamaki O, Hutchins M, Termansen M, Furman E, Perez-Soba M, Braat L, Bidoglio G (2013) Mainstreaming ecosystem services into EU policy. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:128–134. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Matsumoto N, Tsuneyoshi AK (2013) Prioritizing watersheds from a water supply perspective: balancing recharge, production, water quality and stakeholder needs for protection and restoration efforts. Poster presented at the Hawai‘i Conservation Conference Honolulu, Hawai‘i, July 17, 2013Google Scholar
  53. McGregor DPI (1996) An introduction to the Hoa’aina and their rights Hawaiian. J Hist 30:1–27Google Scholar
  54. McKenzie E, Posner S, Tillmann P, Bernhardt JR, Howard K, Rosenthal A (2014a) Understanding the use of ecosystem service knowledge in decision making: lessons from international experiences of spatial planning. Environ Plan C Gov Policy 32:320–340. doi: 10.1068/c12292j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Minerbi L (1999) Indigenous management models and protection of the ahupua ‘a. Soc Process Hawai‘i 39:208–225Google Scholar
  56. Naidoo R, Balmford A, Costanza R, Fisher B, Green RE, Lehner B, Malcolm TR, Ricketts TH (2008) Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:9495–9500. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707823105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nelson E, Mendoza G, Regetz J, Polasky S, Tallis H, Cameron DR, Chan KMA, Daily GC, Goldstein J, Kareiva PM, Lonsdorf E, Naidoo R, Ricketts TH, Shaw MR (2009) Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Front Ecol Environ 7:4–11. doi: 10.1890/080023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nemec KT, Raudsepp-Hearne C (2013) The use of geographic information systems to map and assess ecosystem services. Biodivers Conserv 22:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0406-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ostergaard-Klem R, Oleson KLL (2014) GPI Island style: localizing the genuine progress indicator. Environ Pract 16(3):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peh KS-H, Balmford A, Bradbury RB, Brown C, Butchart SH, Hughes FM, Stattersfield A, Thomas DH, Walpole M, Bayliss J (2013) TESSA: a toolkit for rapid assessment of ecosystem services at sites of biodiversity conservation importance. Ecosyst Serv 5:51–57. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pleasant M, Gray S, Lepcyzk C, Fernandez A, Hunter N, Ford, D (2014) Managing cultural ecosystem services: local management yields large‐scale benefits. Ecosyst Serv 8:141–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.03.006
  62. Raymond CM, Singh GG, Benessaiah K, Bernhardt JR, Levine J, Nelson H, Turner NJ, Norton B, Tam J, Chan KMA (2013) Ecosystem services and beyond: using multiple metaphors to understand human-environment relationships. Bioscience 63:536–546. doi: 10.1525/bio.2013.63.7.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reyers B, Polasky S, Tallis H, Mooney HA, Larigauderie A (2012) Finding common ground for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bioscience 62:503–507. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.5.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rodgers KuS, Kido MH, Jokiel PL, Edmonds T, Brown EK (2012) Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian Islands. Environ Manag 50:21–30. doi: 10.1007/s00267-012-9867-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosenthal A, Verutes G, McKenzie, E, Arkema KK, Bhagabati, N, Bremer, LL, Olwero, N, Vogl AL (2014) Process matters: a framework for conducting decision-relevant assessments of ecosystem services. Int J Biodivers Sci, Ecosyst Serv ManagGoogle Scholar
  66. Roumasset J, Wada CA (2013) A dynamic approach to PES pricing and finance of interlinked ecosystem services: watershed conservation and groundwater management. Ecol Econ 87:24–33. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.11.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roumasset J, Kaiser JB, Krause N, Mecham D, Wooley J (1997) Draft environmental valuation and the Hawaiian economy. University of Hawai‘i Economic Research Organization, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruckelshaus M, McKenzie E, Tallis H, Guerry A, Daily GC, Kareiva P, Polasky S, Ricketts TH, Bhagabati N, Wood S, Bernhardt JR (in press) Notes from the field: lessons learned from using ecosystem services to inform real-world decisions. Ecol Econ. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.07.009
  69. Ruiz-Frau A, Hinz H, Edwards-Jones G, Kaiser MJ (2013) Spatially explicit economic assessment of cultural ecosystem services: non-extractive recreational uses of the coastal environment related to marine biodiversity. Mar Policy 38:90–98. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sharp R, Tallis HT, Ricketts T, Guerry AD, Wood SA, Chaplin-Kramer R, Nelson E, Ennaanay D, Wolny S, Olwero N, Vigerstol K, Pennington D, Mendoza G, Aukema J, Foster J, Forrest J, Cameron D, Arkema K, Lonsdorf E, Kennedy C, Verutes G, Kim CK, Guannel G, Papenfus M, Toft J, Marsik M, Bernhardt J, Griffin R, Glowinski K, Chaumont N, Perelman A, Lacayo M, Mandle L, Hamel P, Vogl AL (2014) InVEST user’s guide. Stanford: the Natural Capital Project. Available from: http://ncp-dev.stanford.edu/~dataportal/investreleases/documentation/current_release/
  71. Smith LM, Case JL, Smith HM, Harwell LC, Summers JK (2013) Relating ecosystem services to domains of human well-being: foundation for a US index. Ecol Indic 28:79–90. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.02.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. SOP (2012) Hawai‘i ocean resources management plan: public review draft. Hawai‘i State Office of Planning, Coastal Zone Management Program, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  73. SRGI (2012) Wahikuli-Honokowai watershed management plan, volume 1: watershed characterization. West Maui Ridge to Reef Initiative; prepared by: The Sustainable Resources Group International, IncGoogle Scholar
  74. Stock JD, Cochran S, Field ME, Jacobi JD, Tribble G (2011) From ridge to reef--linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on the coral reef ecosystems of Hawai‘i and the Pacific Ocean, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011–3049Google Scholar
  75. Syrbe RU, Walz U (2012) Spatial indicators for the assessment of ecosystem services: providing, benefiting and connecting areas and landscape metrics. Ecol Indic 21:80–88. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tallis H, Polasky S (2009) mapping and valuing ecosystem services as an approach for conservation and natural-resource management. In: Year in ecology and conservation biology 2009, vol 1162. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, pp 265–283. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04152.x
  77. Tallis T, Kareiva P, Marvier M, Chang A (2008) An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(28):9457–9464. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0705797105
  78. TEEB (2010) Mainstreaming the economics of nature: a synthesis of the approach, conclusions, and recommendations of TEEBGoogle Scholar
  79. Thomas CR, Gordon IJ, Wooldridge S, Marshall P (2012) Balancing the tradeoffs between ecological and economic risks for the great barrier reef: a pragmatic conceptual framework. Hum Ecol Risk Assess: Int J 18:69–91. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2012.631470
  80. TNC (2006) Hawaiian high islands ecoregional assessment 11. The Nature Conservancy. http://www.hawaiiecoregionplan.info
  81. Vaughan MB, Ardoin NM (2013) The implications of differing tourist/resident perceptions for community-based resource management: a Hawaiian coastal resource area study. J Sustain Tour 22:1–19. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2013.802326
  82. Vaughan MB, Vitousek PM (2013) Mahele: sustaining communities through small-scale inshore fishery catch and sharing networks1. Pac Sci 67:329–344. doi: 10.2984/67.3.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Villa F, Bagstad KJ, Voigt B, Johnson GW, Portela R, Honzak M, Batker D (2014) A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment. PLoS One 9:e91001. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vitousek PM (1995) The Hawaiian islands as a model for ecosystems studies. Pac Sci 49:2–16Google Scholar
  85. Vitousek PM (2002) Oceanic islands as model systems for ecological studies. J Biogeogr 29:573–582. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00707.x
  86. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499. doi: 10.1126/science.277.5325.494 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wamukota AW, Cinner JE, McClanahan TR (2012) Co-management of coral reef fisheries: a critical evaluation of the literature. Mar Policy 36:481–488. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wolanski E, Richmond RH, McCook L (2004) A model of the effects of land-based, human activities on the health of coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef and in Fouha Bay, Guam, Micronesia. J Marine Syst 46(1–4):133–144. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.11.018
  89. Yee SH, Dittmar JA, Oliver LM (2014) Comparison of methods for quantifying reef ecosystem services: a case study mapping services for St. Croix, USVI. Ecosyst Serv 8:1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leah L. Bremer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jade M. S. Delevaux
    • 1
  • James J. K. Leary
    • 1
  • Linda J. Cox
    • 1
  • Kirsten L. L. Oleson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of Hawai‘i at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.The Natural Capital Project, Woods Institute for the EnvironmentStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations