Environmental Management

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 392–410 | Cite as

What Determines Social Capital in a Social–Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

  • Michele Barnes-MautheEmail author
  • Steven Allen Gray
  • Shawn Arita
  • John Lynham
  • PingSun Leung


Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social–ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social–ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii’s longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social–ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.


Social networks Social capital Human capital Ethnic diversity, Stakeholder attributes Natural resource management 



Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant #GEO-1211972 and the Pelagic Fisheries Research Program. We are grateful to the participants of the Networks and Natural Resource Management session at the International Network for Social Network Analysis Sunbelt 2014 meeting, and particularly Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, and Steve Borgatti, who provided invaluable feedback on this work. We thank all fishers who have been involved in this ongoing project, Joey Lecky for his graphic design expertise, Minling Pan of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center for her support, and three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive comments.


The authors have obtained formal, written permission from the copyright owners to use Fig. 2 in this manuscript.

Ethical Standards

All research conducted in this analysis complied with current laws and ethical standards of the U.S.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

267_2014_395_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 25 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Barnes-Mauthe
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Steven Allen Gray
    • 3
  • Shawn Arita
    • 4
  • John Lynham
    • 5
  • PingSun Leung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ResearchUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  3. 3.University of Massachusetts, Boston School for the EnvironmentBostonUSA
  4. 4.Economic Research ServiceUnited States Department of AgricultureWashingtonUSA
  5. 5.Department of EconomicsUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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