The Role of Women in Water Management and Conflict Resolution in Marsabit, Kenya
- 821 Downloads
We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women’s contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women’s access to domestic water supplies.
KeywordsWater conflict Water management Kenya Qualitative Women Water governance Gender
This research was conducted under the Millennium Water Program Kenya. Financial support was provided by the United States Agency for International Development and the Emory University Global Field Experience Fund. The authors wish to thank the women and men who participated in this study. The authors would like to acknowledge Susan Aleya, Elizabeth Diko Boru, Peter Durito, Paul Forole, Joseph Iya Galgallo, Malich Galgallo, Ruth Moga, Samuel Moga, Pinto Ortoya, and Boru Andrew Roba, for their skill and dedication in data collection as well as Food for the Hungry Kenya staff—Simeon Ogamba, Richard Roba, and Alidiba—whose expertise in water, sanitation, and hygiene issues in Marsabit communities was instrumental to the success of the research.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was deemed exempt by Emory University’s Institutional Review Board and was approved by the National Steering Committee on Peace building and Conflict Management in Kenya. Informed consent was obtained orally from all KII and FGD study participants.
- Adano WR (2009) Scarcity of natural resources and pastoral conflicts in northern Kenya: an inquiry. Horn Afr Bull 21(1):1–5Google Scholar
- Boateng JD, Brown CK, Tenkorang EY (2013) Gender and water management practices in Ghana. J Environ Earth Sci 3(5):88–103Google Scholar
- Bruns B (2005) Community-based principles for negotiating water rights: some conjectures on assumptions and priorities. Paper presented at the African Water Laws: Plural Legislative Frameworks for Rural Water Management in Africa, Johannesburg, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
- Corbin J, Strauss A (2007) Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 3rd edn. SAGE Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
- Gehrig J, Rogers MM (2009) Water and conflict incorporating peacebuilding into water development. Catholic Relief Services, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- GoK (2002) The Water Act, 2002. Government of Kenya, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- Greene L, Freeman M, Rush R (2010) Baseline evaluation report, Millennium Water Program, Kenya USAID SF424Google Scholar
- Hennink M, Hutter I, Bailey A (2011) Qualitative Research Methods. SAGE Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Howard G, Bartram J (2003) Domestic water quantity, service level and health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Lendelvo S, Munyebvu F, Suich H (2012) Linking women’s participation and benefits within the Namibian community based natural resource management program. J Sustain Dev 5(12):p27Google Scholar
- Mwangi OG (2006) Conflict in the ‘badlands’: the Turbi Massacre in Marsabit district. Rev Afr Polit Econ 33(107):81–91Google Scholar
- O’Reilly K (2008) Insider/outsider politics: implementing gendered participation in water resource management. In: Resurreccion BP, Elmhirst R (eds) Gender and natural resource management: livelihoods, mobility and interventions. International Development Research Centre, Sterling, pp 195–212Google Scholar
- Ravnborg HM (2004) Water and conflict: conflict prevention and mitigation in water resources management. Danish Institute for International Studies, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
- Rivera R, Borasky D (2009) Research ethics training curriculum, 2nd edn. Family Health International, Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
- Scott-Villiers P, Ungiti HB, Kiyana D, Kullu M, Orto T, Reidy E, Sora A (2011) The long conversation: solving conflict through customary approaches to peace management in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya. Future Agricultures/IDS working paperGoogle Scholar
- Wallensteen P (2002) Understanding conflict resolution: war, peace and the global system. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Water Resource Management Global Water Partnership (2014) http://www.gwp.org/en/The-Challenge/Water-resources-management/. Accessed June 30, 2014
- Wolf A, Kramer A, Carius A, Dabelko G (2005) Managing water conflict and cooperation. In: Stark L (ed) State of the world 2005: redefining global security. The Worldwatch Institute, W.W. Norton & Co, New York, p 80–99Google Scholar