Environmental Management

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 151–161 | Cite as

The Influence of Culture on the International Management of Shark Finning

  • Andrea Dell’Apa
  • M. Chad Smith
  • Mahealani Y. Kaneshiro-Pineiro
Article

Abstract

Shark finning is prohibited in many countries, but high prices for fins from the Asian market help maintain the international black-market and poaching. Traditional shark fin bans fail to recognize that the main driver of fin exploitation is linked to cultural beliefs about sharks in traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, shark finning should be addressed considering the social science approach as part of the fishery management scheme. This paper investigates the cultural significance of sharks in traditional Chinese and Hawaiian cultures, as valuable examples of how specific differences in cultural beliefs can drive individuals’ attitudes toward the property of shark finning. We suggest the use of a social science approach that can be useful in the design of successful education campaigns to help change individuals’ attitudes toward shark fin consumption. Finally, alternative management strategies for commercial fishers are provided to maintain self-sustainability of local coastal communities.

Keywords

China Cultural beliefs Education campaigns Hawai’i Shark finning 

References

  1. Aguilar F (2006) Informe tecnico Tiburon Memo to P. Solís at INP, GuayaquilGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvaro M (2006) Soccer star weighs into save sharks. EcoAmericas, 24 January. http://www.ecoamericas.com/en/story.aspx?id=690 Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  3. Anderson RC, Waheed A (1999) Management of shark fisheries in the Maldives. In: Shotton R (ed) Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 378/2. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (1995) China culinary art encyclopedia. China Encyclopedia Publishers, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariz JA, Delgado de Molina ML, Santana JC (2006) Body-weight (dressed weight) and fin-weight ratios of several species of shark caught by Spanish longliners in the Indian Ocean. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Working Group to Assess Stock Assessments 7th Meeting. Document SAR-7-09, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Beckwith MW (1917) Hawaiian shark aumakua. Am Anthropol 19:503–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradsher K (2005) Disneyland in China offers a soup and lands in a stew. The New York Times, New York, NY, 17 June. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/17/business/worldbusiness/17shark.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  8. Braun KL, Mokuau N, Hunt GH, Kaanoi M, Gotay CC (2002) Supports and obstacles to cancer survival for Hawaii’s native people. Cancer Practice 10:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown PJ, Manfredo MJ (1987) Social values defined. In: Decker D, Goff GG (eds) Valuing wildlife. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 12–23Google Scholar
  10. Camhi M, Fowler S, Musick J, Bräutigam A, Fordham S (1998) Sharks and their relatives: ecology and conservation. Occasional paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 20. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Carr LA, Stier AC, Fietz K, Montero I, Gallagher AJ, Bruno JF (2013) Illegal shark fishing in the Galàpagos marine reserve. Mar Policy 39:317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheung GCK, Chang CY (2011) Cultural identities of Chinese business: networks of the shark-fin business in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Business Review 17:343–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cisneros-Montemayor A, Barnes-Mauthe M, Al-Abdulrazzak D, Navarro-Holm E, Sumaila UR (2013) Global economic value of shark ecotourism: implications for conservation. Oryx 47:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clarke SC (2004a) Shark product trade in mainland China and Hong Kong and implementation of the CITES shark listings. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke SC (2004b) Understanding pressures on fishery resources through trade statistics: a pilot study of four products in the Chinese seafood market. Fish Fish 5:53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clarke SC, McAllister MK, Milner-Gulland EJ, Kirkwood GP, Michielsens CGJ, Agnew DJ, Pikitch EK, Nakano H, Shivji MS (2006) Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. Ecol Lett 9:1115–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke SC, Milner-Gulland EJ, Cemare TB (2007) Perspective, social, economic, and regulatory drivers of the shark fin trade. Mar Resourc Econ 22:305–327Google Scholar
  18. Cortés E (2004) Life history patterns, demography, and population dynamics. In: Carrier JC, Musick JA, Heithaus MR (eds) Biology of sharks and their relatives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 449–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis D, Banks S, Birtles A, Valentine P, Cuthill M (1997) Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian protected area. Tour Manag 18:259–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dulvy NK, Baum JK, Clarke S, Compagno LJV, Cortés E, Domingo A, Fordham S, Fowler S, Francis MP, Gibson C, Martínez J, Musick JA, Soldo A, Stevens JD, Valenti S (2008) You can swim but you can’t hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays. Aquat Conserv 18:459–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Emerson JS (1892) The lesser Hawaiian Gods. Hawaii Hist Soc Papers 2:1–24Google Scholar
  22. EU (2003) Council Regulation (EC) No 1185/2003 of 26 June 2003 on the removal of fins of sharks on board vessels. Official Journal of the European Union L167/1-3. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:167:0001:0003:EN:PDF Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  23. Fabinyi M (2012) Historical, cultural and social perspectives on luxury seafood consumption China. Environ Conserv 39:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ferretti F, Worm B, Britten GL, Heithaus MR, Lotze HK (2010) Patterns and ecosystem consequences of shark declines in the ocean. Ecol Lett 13:1055–1071Google Scholar
  25. Fischer J, Erikstein K, D’Offray B, Guggisberg S, Barone M (2012) Review of the implementation of the international plan of action for the conservation and management of sharks. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No 1076, FIRF/C1076. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. Fong QSW, Anderson JL (1998) Assessment of the Hong Kong shark fin trade. In: Eide A, Vassdal T (eds) Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, Vol. 2. Tromsø, pp. 669-673Google Scholar
  27. Fong QSW, Anderson JL (2000) Assessment of the Hong Kong shark fin trade. Infofish Intern 1(2000):28–32Google Scholar
  28. Fong QSW, Anderson JL (2002) International shark fin markets and shark management: an integrated market preference-cohort analysis of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus). Ecol Econ 40:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fowler SL, Camhi M, Burgess GH et al (2005) Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. Status survey. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Francis MP, Griggs LH, Baird SJ (2001) Pelagic shark bycatch in the New Zealand tuna longline fishery. Mar Freshw Res 52:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freeman M (1977) Sung. In: Chang KC (ed) Food in Chinese Culture. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 141–192Google Scholar
  32. Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N (2011) Local shark currency: the distribution, frequency, and economic value of shark ecotourism. Curr Issues in Tour 14:797–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gilman E (2007) Shark catch rates and disposition. In: Gilman E, Clarke S, Brothers N, Alvaro-Shigueto J, Mandelman J, Mangel J, Petersen S, Piovano S, Thomson N, Dalzell P, Donoso M, Goren M, Werner T (eds) Shark depredation and unwanted bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries: industry practices and attitudes, and shark avoidance strategies. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, Honolulu, pp 12–14Google Scholar
  34. Handy ES, Pukui MK (1958) The Polynesian family system in Ka’u, Hawai’i. The Polynesian Society, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Henderson C (1984) Publicity strategies and techniques for Minnesota’s nongame wildlife checkoff. Trans North Am Wildl Nat Resour Conf 49:181–189Google Scholar
  36. Hilborn R (2007) Defining success in fisheries and conflicts in objectives. Mar Policy 31:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hospital J, Beavers C (2014) Catch shares and the main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery: linking fishery conditions and fisher perceptions. Mar Policy 44:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hospital J, Bruce SS, Pan M (2011) Economic and social characteristic of the Hawaii small boat pelagic fishery. In: Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent. NMFS, NOAA (ed). Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent. Admin. Rep. H-11-01, 50p. +Appendices, Honolulu, HI 96822-2396Google Scholar
  39. IAASTD (2008) Agriculture at a crossroads: the synthesis report. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. Jacquet J, Alava JJ, Pramod G, Henderson S, Zeller D (2008) In hot soup: sharks captured in Ecuador’s waters. Environ Sci 5:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson JC, Griffith DC (2010) Finding common ground in the commons: intracultural variation in users’ conceptions of coastal fisheries issues. Soc Nat Resour 23:837–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones A (2005) Skip the soup and save sharks from the jaws of greed. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 3 JulyGoogle Scholar
  43. Kirch P (1985) Feathered Gods and fishhooks: an introduction to Hawaiian archaeology and prehistory. University of Hawai’i Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  44. Levin SS (1968) The overthrow of the kapu system in Hawaii. J Polynes Soc 77:402–430Google Scholar
  45. Li CH (1998) China: the consumer revolution. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Maly K, Maly O (2003) “Hana Ka Lima, Ai Ka Waha” a collection of historical accounts and oral history interviews with Kama’Aina residents and fisher-people of lands in the Halele’A-Napali region. Kumu Pono Associates, LCC, HiloGoogle Scholar
  47. McCoy MA, Ishihara H (1999) The socio-economic importance of sharks in the U.S. Flag areas of the Western and Central Pacific. National Marine Fisheries Service, Long BeachGoogle Scholar
  48. McKinnel S, Seki MP (1998) Shark bycatch in the Japanese high seas squid driftnet fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Fisher Res 39:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller ML, Kaneko J, Bartram P, Marks J, Brewer DD (2004) Cultural consensus analysis and environmental anthropology: yellowfin tuna fishery management in Hawai’i. Cross-cultural res 38:289–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mokuau N, Browne CV, Braun KL (1998) Na Kupuna in Hawai’i: a review of social and health status, service use and the importance of value-based interventions. Pacific Health Dialog 5:282–289Google Scholar
  51. Morse H (2000) Shark finning ban becomes federal law. Honolulu Star Bulletin, 27 December. http://starbulletin.com/2000/12/27/news/story11.html Accessed 4 Jan 2013
  52. Ng T (2011) The impact of seafood consumption on endangered marine species on Hong Kong. Int J Environ Sci 1:2048–2085Google Scholar
  53. NMFS (2005) 2005 Report to Congress pursuant to the Shark Finning Prohibition Act of 2000. United States National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/Shark%20Finning%20Report.pdf Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  54. NOAA (2011) Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation (SAFE) Report for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species. Highly Migratory Species Management Division. National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/hms/Safe_Report/2011/SAFE%20Report_FINAL_122011.pdf Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  55. Okey TA, Banks S, Born AR, Bustamante RH, Calvopia M, Edgar GJ, Espinoza E, Farina JM, Garske LE, Reck GK, Salazar S, Shepherd S, Toral-Granda V, Wallem P (2004) A trophic model of a Galapagos subtidal rocky reef for evaluating fisheries and conservation strategies. Ecol Model 172:383–401Google Scholar
  56. Parry S (2005) Top hotels feel the bite as Disney scraps shark’s fin soup. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 30 JuneGoogle Scholar
  57. Parry-Jones R (1996) TRAFFIC report on shark fisheries and trade in Hong Kong. The world trade in sharks: a compendium of TRAFFIC’s regional studies Vol.1. TRAFFIC, Cambridge, pp. 87-143Google Scholar
  58. Petty R, Cacioppo J (1981) Attitudes and persuasions: classic and contemporary approaches. W.C. Brown Co. Publishers, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  59. Petty R, Cacioppo J (1984) Source factors and the elaboration-likelihood model of persuasion. Advanc Consum Res 11:668–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Petty R, Cacioppo J (1986) Communication and persuasion: central and peripheral routes to attitude change. Springer/Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Petty RE, McMichael S, Brannon LA (1992) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion: applications in recreation and tourism. In: Manfredo M (ed) Influencing human behaviour: Theory and applications in recreation, tourism, and natural resources management. Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, pp 77–101Google Scholar
  62. Pukui MK, Haertig EW, Lee CA (1972) Nana I ke kumu (Look to the source). Hui Hanai, Queen Lili’uokalani Children’s Center, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  63. Rezentes III WC (1993) Na Mea Hawai’i: a Hawaiian acculturation scale. Psychol Rep 73:383–393Google Scholar
  64. Rogan E, Mackey M (2007) Megafauna bycatch in drift nets for albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the NE Atlantic. Fisher Res 86:6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Romney AK, Batchelder WH, Weller SC (1987) Recent applications of cultural consensus. Am Behav Sci 31:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rose DA (1996) An overview of world trade in sharks and other cartilaginous fishes. Traffic, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Rulifson RA (2007) Spiny dogfish mortality induced by gill-net and trawl capture, and tag and release. North Am J Fisher Manag 27:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruppert JLW, Travers MJ, Smith LL, Fortin M-J, Meekan MG (2013) Caught in the middle: combined impacts of shark removal and coral loss on the fish communities of coral reefs. PLoS One 8(9):e74648. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Selman R (1980) The growth of interpersonal understanding: developmental and clinical analyses. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Shivji M, Clarke S, Pank M, Natanson L, Kohler N, Stanhope M (2002) Genetic identification of pelagic shark body parts for conservation and trade monitoring. Conserv Biol 16:1036–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith SED, Au W, Show C (1998) Intrinsic rebound potential of 26 species of Pacific sharks. Mar Freshw Res 49:663–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stobutzki IC, Miller MJ, Heales DS, Brewer DT (2002) Sustainability of elasmobranchs caught as bycatch in a tropical prawn (shrimp) trawl fishery. Fish B-NOAA 100:800–821Google Scholar
  73. Taylor LR (1993) Sharks of Hawai’i, their biology and cultural significance. University of Hawai’i Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  74. Techera EJ (2012) Fishing, finning and tourism: trends in Pacific shark conservation and management. Inter J Mar Coast Law 27:597–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Titcomb M, Pukui MK (1972) Native use of fish in Hawai’i. University of Hawai’i Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  76. Topelko KN, Dearden P (2005) The shark watching industry and its potential contribution to shark conservation. J Ecotour 4:108–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tsui B (2013) Souring on shark fin soup. The New York Times, New York, NY, 29 June. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/opinion/sunday/souring-on-shark-finsoup.html?pagewanted=all Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  78. Vannuccini S (1999) Shark utilization, marketing and trade. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 389. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  79. Vaske JJ, Donnelly MP, Wittmann K, Laidlaw S (1995) Interpersonal versus social-values conflict. Leisure Sci 17:205–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ward P, Myers RA (2005) Shifts in open-ocean fish communities coinciding with the commencement of commercial fishing. Ecol 86:835–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weller C (2007) Cultural consensus theory: applications and frequently asked questions. Field Methods 19:339–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wild Aid (2005) At rock bottom: the declining sharks of the Eastern tropical Pacific. San Francisco. http://www.protect-the-sharks.org/pdf/Wildaid/At_Rock_Bottom.pdf Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  83. Wild Aid (2007) End of the line? - Global threats to sharks (2nd Edition). San Francisco. http://www.wildaid.org/sites/default/files/resources/EndOfTheLine2007US.pdf Accessed 4 Jan 2014
  84. Williams DR (1993) Conflict in the great outdoors. Parks Recreat 28:28–34Google Scholar
  85. Williams H, Schaap AH (1992) Preliminary results of a study into the incidental mortality of sharks in gill-nets in two Tasmanian shark nursery areas. In: Pepperell JG (ed) Sharks, Biology and Fisheries. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 43: 237-250Google Scholar
  86. Worm B, Davis B, Kettemer L, Ward-Paige CA, Chapman D, Heithaus MR, Kessel ST, Gruber SH (2013) Global catches, exploitation rates, and rebuilding options for sharks. Mar Policy 40:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang M (1994) Gifts, favors and banquets: the art of social relationships in China. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  88. Yang M (2002) The resilience of guanxi and its new deployments: a critique of some new guanxi scholarship. China Quart 170:459–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Dell’Apa
    • 1
  • M. Chad Smith
    • 1
  • Mahealani Y. Kaneshiro-Pineiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Coastal Science and Policy, Flanagan 250East Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations