Light Availability Prevails Over Soil Fertility and Structure in the Performance of Asian Knotweeds on Riverbanks: New Management Perspectives
- 392 Downloads
Asian knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) are considered one of the world’s most invasive species. Restoring habitats dominated by these exotic species requires a better understanding of the importance of abiotic factors controlling the invasive knotweeds performance. We used observational data obtained on the embankment of the Isère River (France) to study the performance of Fallopia spp. under different soil, light, and disturbance conditions. On the Isère riverbanks, light intensity assessed by light quantity transmitted through canopy was the most important factor explaining the variability observed on knotweed performance expressed as above-ground biomass per square meter. Asian knotweeds were more productive under intensive light conditions. Alternatively other factors such as mowing (twice a year), soil fertility, soil texture, position on the bank or exposure to the sun had no significant effect on knotweed biomass production. We conclude that decreasing light resources, for example, by increasing competitive pressure on sites dominated by Asian knotweeds could be included in management plans to control the populations of this invasive taxon.
KeywordsEcological engineering Disturbance Fallopia Light Mowing Soil
The authors wish to thank Nathan Daumergue for his valuable assistance in the field work. We are also grateful to Alain Bédécarrat, Marie-Laure Navas and two anonymous reviewers for advice and useful comments that greatly improved this manuscript. We would also like to thank the Alpine Botanical Conservatory (CBNA) and the ADIDR for their data sets on Asian knotweeds presence on the Isère territory. Funding was provided by the National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Irstea) and by the Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food, and Environmental Sciences (AgroParisTech-ENGREF).
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Authors declare that this experiment complies with the current laws of France.
- Barney JN, Whitlow TH, Lembo Jr. AJ (2008) Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species. PLoS One 3(2):e1635Google Scholar
- Barták R, Konupková Kalousová Š, Krupová B (2010) Methods of elimination of invasive knotweed species (Reynoutria spp.). Moravian-Silesian Region in cooperation with ČSOP Salamandr and with financial support from the European Union, 2010Google Scholar
- Bímová K, Mandák B, Kašparová I (2004) How does Reynoutria invasion fit the various theories of invasibility? J Veg Sci 15(4):495–504Google Scholar
- Bravard JP (1989) La métamorphose des rivières des Alpes françaises à la fin du moen-age et à l’époque moderne. Bull de la Société Géographique de Liège 25:145–157Google Scholar
- Choler P (2002) Niche differentiation and distribution of Carex curvula along a bioclimatic gradient in the southwestern Alps. J Veg Sci 13:851–858Google Scholar
- Crowhurst G (2006) Managing Japanese knotweed on development sites. Environ Law Manag 18(6):296–302Google Scholar
- Drever CR (2005) Assessing light and conifer growth in a riparian restoration treatment along Spirit Creek, British Columbia. Northwest Sci 79(1):44–52Google Scholar
- Frazer GW, Canham CD (1999) Gap light analyzer. Imaging software to extract forest canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour hemispherical (fisheye) photographs. Simon Fraser University, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, BurnabyGoogle Scholar
- Fujiyoshi M, Kagawa A, Nakatsubo T, Masuzawa T (2005) Successional changes in mycorrhizal type in the pioneer plant communities of a subalpine volcanic desert on Mt. Fuji, Japan. Polar Biosci 18:60–72Google Scholar
- Gerber E, Murrell C, Krebs C, Bilat J, Schaffner U (2010) Evaluating non-chemical management methods against invasive exotic knotweeds, Fallopia spp. CABI, EghamGoogle Scholar
- Hughes F, Richards K, Girel J, Moss T, Muller E, Nilsson C, Rood S (2003) The flooded forest: guidance for policy makers and river managers in Europe on the restoration of floodplain forests. European CommissionGoogle Scholar
- ISSG (2008) Invasive species specialist group gateway—UICN. http://www.issg.org/index.html. Accessed 5 Mar 2010
- Jolliffe IT (2002) Principal component analysis. Springer series in statistics, 2nd revised edition edn, Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Le Berre M (2010) Suivi d’une étude expérimentale de lutte contre les renouées exotiques invasives (Fallopia spp.) sur les digues de l’Isère. Université Joseph Fourier, ADIDR, GrenobleGoogle Scholar
- Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology. Developments in environmental modelling 20. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Mandle L, Warren DL, Hoffmann MH, Peterson AT, Schmitt J, von Wettberg EJ (2010) Conclusions about niche expansion in introduced impatiens walleriana populations depend on method of analysis. PLoS One 5(12):e15297Google Scholar
- Maule HG, Andrews M, Morton JD, Jones AV, Daly GT (1995) Sun/shade acclimation and nitrogen nutrition of Tradescantian fluminensis, a problem weed in New Zealand native forest remnants. N Z J Ecol 19(1):35–46Google Scholar
- Parkinson H, Mangold J (2010) Biology, ecology and management of the knotweed complex. Montana State University, BozemanGoogle Scholar
- Pyšek P, Prach K (1994) How important are rivers for supporting plant invasions? Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2009) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Schnitzler A, Schlesier S (1997) Ecologie, biogéographie et possibilités de contrôle des populations invasives de Renouées asiatiques (Fallopia japonica et fallopia sachalinensis) en Europe. Le cas particulier du bassin Rhin Meuse. AERM;Centre de Recherches Ecologiques METZ; Université METZ; Laboratoire de phytoécologie METZGoogle Scholar
- SMVOA (2005–2009) Bilan du programme de lutte contre la Renouée du Japon. Syndicat mixte de la Vallée de l’Orge Aval, Viry-ChatillonGoogle Scholar
- Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Rejmanek M, Westbrooks R (1997) Introduced species: a significant component of human-caused global change. N Z J Ecol 21(1):1–16Google Scholar
- Vrchotová N, Šerá B (2008) Allelopathic properties of knotweed rhizome extracts. Plant Soil Environ 54(7):301–303Google Scholar