Environmental Management

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 750–758 | Cite as

Effects of Logged and Unlogged Forest Patches on Avifaunal Diversity

  • Maryam Ghadiri KhanaposhtaniEmail author
  • Mohammad Kaboli
  • Mahmoud Karami
  • Vahid Etemad
  • Saeedeh Baniasadi


In the Hyrcanian forests of northern Iran, reduced-impact silviculture systems, (single-tree and group-tree selection) were applied over a large area, which generated different local habitat structures. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between treated and untreated areas of forest and their effect on avian richness, abundance and diversity (R.A.D). Birds were surveyed during the breeding season in 2009 by 100-point counts, equally distributed in the treated and untreated area. Avian R.A.D was significantly different and higher in the untreated area. Generally, forestry practices cause noticeable changes in canopy percentage, tree composition, snags and shrub number. Treated forest habitats in the area of study had a much more developed understory, fewer snags and fewer large diameter trees. The results highlighted the importance of forest maturity and showed that preventing silvicultural disturbances may not be the best solution for conserving and enhancing biodiversity. Rather, methods such as selective cutting seem an appropriate and sustainable way of forest management. It is suggested that forests should be managed to conserve structural elements which create favorable habitat for bird species, preventing future species losses due to logging practices.


Forest structure Bird community Richness Abundance Diversity Silvicultural treatment 



The authors wish to thank A. Ebrahimpour and M. Shariati for their help with bird surveys, B. Hosseinzade and M. Tohidifar for their constructive comments and also I. Beheshti Tabar and A.C. Miller for their help in preparing the final version of the manuscript. The research was supported by the Department of Environmental Sciences, Tehran University, Iran.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Ghadiri Khanaposhtani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Kaboli
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Karami
    • 1
  • Vahid Etemad
    • 1
  • Saeedeh Baniasadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran

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