Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 228–242 | Cite as

A Template for Integrated Community Sustainability Planning

  • Christopher Ling
  • Kevin Hanna
  • Ann Dale
Article

Abstract

This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.

Keywords

Integrated planning Sustainability Sustainable development Community involvement Participatory planning Implementation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support for this work has been provided by Infrastructure Canada and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. The authors would like to thank the practitioners in planning and community development, who provided review comments, experience, and insight, for their help in this research. The time, comments and insight provided by the peer reviewers are also greatly appreciated.

References

  1. Alberta Urban Municipalities Association (2006) Comprehensive guide for municipal sustainability planning. AUMA, Edmonton, 113 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti M (1999) Urban patterns and environmental performance: what do we know? Journal of Planning Education and Research 19:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JM (2005) Blueprint for a greener city: growth need not cost the earth. Water Science and Technology 52:61–67Google Scholar
  4. Andersson E (2006) Urban landscapes and sustainable cities. Ecology and Society 11:Article 34Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong JS (ed) (2001) Principles of forecasting: a handbook for researchers and practitioners. Springer, New York, 864 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnstein SR (1969) A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Planning Association 35:216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldassare M, Hassol J, Hoffman W, Kanarek A (1996) Possible planning roles for regional government: a survey of city planning directors in California. Journal of the American Planning Association 62:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banai R (2005) Land resource sustainability for urban development: spatial decision support system prototype. Environmental Management 36:282–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett GW (1985) A problem-solving approach to resource management. Bioscience 35(7):423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berke PR, Conroy MM (2000) Planning for sustainable development: measuring and explaining progress in plans. Journal of the American Planning Association 66:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Born SM, Sonzogni WC (1995) Integrated environmental management: strengthening the conceptualization. Environmental Management 19(2):167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyle M, Gibson RB, Curran D (2004) If not here then, perhaps not anywhere: urban growth management in British Columbia’s capital regional district. Local Environment 9:21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradwell P, Johar I, Maguire C, Miner P (2007) Future planners: propositions of the next age of planning. Demos, London, 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Brekke JS (1987) The model-guided method for monitoring program implementation. Evaluation Review 11(3):281–299Google Scholar
  15. Burby RJ, May PJ (1997) Making governments plan: state experiments in managing land use. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 192 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Cairns J Jr (1991) The need for integrated environmental management. In: Cairns J Jr, Crawford TV (eds) integrated environmental management. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp 5–20Google Scholar
  17. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (2002) Sustainable community planning and development: design Charrette planning guide. CMHC, Ottawa, 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Cerverro R (2001) Efficient urbanisation: economic performance and the shape of the metropolis. Urban Studies 38:1651–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christoforidis A (1994) New alternatives to the suburb: neo-traditional developments. Journal of Planning Literature 8:429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Churchill CJ, Baetz BW (1999) Development of decision support system for sustainable community design. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 125:17–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Common Ground Community Mapping Project, Mapa Verde Americas and Green Map System (2005) Mapping our common ground – a community and green mapmaking resource guide. Green Map System, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Congress of the New Urbanism (1999) Charter of the New Urbanism. McGraw-Hill, New York, 320 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Conroy MM (2003) The process of planning for sustainable development: dimensions, comparisons, and insights. International Journal of Sustainable Development 6(4):460–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crabtree L (2005) Sustainable housing development in urban Australia: exploring obstacles to and opportunities for ecocity efforts. Australian Geographer 36:333–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dale A (2001) At the edge: sustainable development in the 21st Century. UBC Press, Vancouver, 232 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Dale A (2005) A perspective on the evolution of e-dialogues concerning the interdisciplinary research on sustainable development in Canada. Ecology and Society 10:37–46Google Scholar
  27. Dale A, Robinson J (1995) Achieving sustainable development. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidson S (1998) Spinning the wheel of empowerment. Planning April 3:14–15Google Scholar
  29. Department of Finance (2005) The Budget Plan 2005. Department of Finance, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  30. Engel-Yan J, Kennedy C, Saiz S, Pressnail K (2005) Toward sustainable neighbourhoods: the need to consider infrastructure interactions. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 32:45−57Google Scholar
  31. Dryzek JS (1990) Designs for environmental discourse: the greening of the administrative state. In: Paehlke R, Torgenson D (eds) Managing leviathan. Broadview, Peterborough, 380 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Ewan J, Fish ER, Burke R (2004) Building ecology into the planning continuum: case study of desert land preservation in Pheonix, Arizona (USA). Landscape and Urban Planning 68:53–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flores A, Pickett STA, Zipperer WC, Pouyat RV, Pirani R (1998) Adopting a modern ecological view of the metropolitan landscape: the case of a greenspace system for the New York City region. Landscape and Urban Planning 39:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Forman RTT (1995) Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 632 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Freeman H (1980) The present status of evaluation research. In: Evaluating social action projects. UNESCO, New York, pp 9–46Google Scholar
  36. Galt M, Tait D, Chicoine-Piper M (1997) Idon scenario thinking: how to navigate the uncertainties of unknown futures. IGI Publishing, Minneapolis, 145 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson T (1991) Planning for real: the approach of the neighbourhood initiatives foundation in the UK, pp 29-30 in IIED. RRA Notes 11: Proceedings of a local level adaptive planning workshop, IIED, May 1991. IIED, London, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Gorobets A (2006) An eco-centric approach to sustainable community development. Community Development Journal 41:104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Groenewegen PP, van den Berg AE, de Vries AES, Verheij RA (2006) Vitamin G: effect of green space on health, well-being, and social safety. BMC Public Health 6:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ham C, Hill M (1993) The policy process in the modern capitalist state. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Toronto, 256 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamilton M (2006) Integral metamap creates common language for urban change. Journal of Organizational Change Management 19:276–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanna KS (1999) Integrated resource management in the Fraser River estuary: stakeholder’s perceptions of the state of the river and program influence. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54(2):490–498Google Scholar
  43. Hanna K (2007) Implementation in a complex setting: integrated environmental planning in the Fraser River Estuary. In: Kevin S, Hanna, Scott Slocombe D (eds) Integrated resource and environmental resource and environmental management: concepts and practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 265 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Hanna K (2005) Planning for sustainability, two contrasting communities. Journal of the American Planning Association 71(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hanna K (2000) The paradox of participation and the hidden role of information: a case study. American Planning Association Journal 66:398–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanna K, Walton-Roberts M (2004) Quality of place and the rescaling of urban governance: the case of Toronto. Journal of Canadian Studies 38(3):37–67Google Scholar
  47. Healey P (1997) Collaborative planning, shaping places in fragmented societies. Macmillan, Basingstoke, 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Hessing M, Howlett M (1997) Canadian natural resource and environmental policy. UBC Press, Vancouver, 342 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Hyrynyshyn J (2002) City of dreams. New Scientist 175:38–39Google Scholar
  50. Infrastructure Canada (2005) Agreement on the transfer of federal gas tax revenues under the New Deal for Cities and Communities. Infrastructure Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  51. Jacobs J (1961) The death and life of great American cities. Random House, New York, 458 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. James S, Lahti T (2004) The natural step for communities. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones CO (1984) An introduction to the study of public policy. Brooks Cole, Monterey, 276 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Kenworthy J (2006) The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development. Environment and Urbanization 18:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kurtz C, Snowden D (2002) The new dynamics of strategy: sense making in a complex-complicated world. IBM Systems Journal 42(3):462–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Linder SH, Peters BG (1989) Instruments of government: perceptions and contexts. Journal of Public Policy 9:35–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ling C, Handley JF, Rodwell J (2007) Restructuring the post-industrial landscape: a multifunctional approach. Landscape Research 32(3):285–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Margerum RD, Born SM (1995) Integrated environmental management: moving from theory to practice. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 38(3):371–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Margerum RD, Born SM (2000) A co-ordination diagnostic for improving integrated environmental management. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 43(1):5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McHarg IL (1969) Design with nature. The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, 208 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitchell B (2002) Resource and environmental management. Prentice Hall, Harlow, 504 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Næss P (2001) Urban planning and sustainable development. European Planning Studies 9:503–524Google Scholar
  63. Newman L, Dale A (2005) The role of agency in sustainable local community development. Local Environment 10:477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Olson P, Folke C, Berkes F (2004) Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Environmental Management 34:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ostrom E (2000) Social capital: a fad or a fundamental concept? In: Dasgupta P, Serageldin I (eds) Social capital: a multifaceted perspective. The World Bank, Washington, DC, pp 172–214Google Scholar
  66. Paehlke R (1990) Democracy and environmentalism: opening a door to the administrative state. In: Paehlke R, Torgerson D (eds) Managing Leviathan 35–58. Broadview, Peterborough, 380 ppGoogle Scholar
  67. Pauleit S, Duhme F (2000) Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 52:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Petak WJ (1980) Environmental planning and management: the need for an integrative perspective. Environmental Management 4(4):287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM (2004) Resilient cities: meaning model, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms. Landscape and Urban Planning 69:369–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Register R (2006) Ecocities: rebuilding cities in balance with nature–revised edition. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, 373 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Rehm R, Cebula N, Ryan F, Large M, Devane T (2002) Future that Work. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, 224 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Robinson J, Tinker J (1997) Reconciling ecological, economic, and social imperatives: a new conceptual framework. In: Schrecker T (ed) Surviving globalism: social and environmental challenges. Macmillan, London, pp 71–94Google Scholar
  73. Roseland M (2005) Toward sustainable communities. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, 256 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Rossi P, Freeman H (1985) Evaluation: a systemic approach. Sage, Newbury, 484 ppGoogle Scholar
  75. Rydin Y, Pennington M (2000) Public participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital. Local Environment 5:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sabatier PA, Mazmanian DA (1981) The implementation of public policy: a framework for analysis. In: Mazmanian DA, Sabatier PA (eds) Effective policy implementation. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  77. Selman P (1993) Landscape ecology and countryside planning–vision, theory and practice. Journal of Rural Studies 9:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Selman P (2002) Multi-function landscape plans: a missing link in sustainability planning. Local Environment 7:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Seymoar NK (2004) Planning for long-term urban sustainability: a guide to frameworks and tools. +30 Network, Vancouver, 112 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Slocombe DS, Hanna KS (2007) Integration in resource and environmental management: towards a framework. In: Hanna KevinS, Scott Slocombe D (eds) Integrated resource and environmental resource and environmental management: concepts and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  81. Steiner FR (2000) The living landscape: an ecological approach to landscape planning, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Stone B (2004) Paving over paradise: how land use regulations promote residential imperviousness. Landscape and Urban Planning 69:101–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sustainable Calgary (2004) State of Our City Report. Sustainable Calgary, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  84. The Sheltair Group (2001) Green municipalities: a guide to green infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities. Federation of Canadian Municipalites, Ottawa, 46 ppGoogle Scholar
  85. Tippet J (2005a) Participatory planning in river catchments, an innovative toolkit tested in South Africa and North West England. Water Science Technology 52:95–105Google Scholar
  86. Tippet J (2005) A participatory protocol for ecologically informed design within river catchments. A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the Degree of Ph.D. in the Faculty of Arts. University of Manchester, Manchester, 537 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Tomalty R, Alexander D (2005) Smart growth in Canada: implementation of a planning concept. CMHC, Ottawa, 251 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Torgerson D (1990a) Obsolescent leviathan: problems of order in administrative thought. In: R. Paehlke and D. Torgerson (eds), Managing Leviathan, 17–34. Peterborough: Broadview, 380 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Torgerson D (1990b) Limits of the administrative mind: the problem of defining environmental problems. In: Paehlke R, Torgerson D (eds) Managing Leviathan, 115–164. Broadview, Peterborough, 380 ppGoogle Scholar
  90. Troy P (2003) The structure and form of the Australian City: prospects for improved urban planning. Urban Policy Research Paper No. 1. Griffith University, Nathan, 21 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. United Nations Population Find (2007) State of the World Population 2007: unleashing the potential of urban growth. UNFPA, New York, 108 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Van Meter DS, Van Horn CE (1975) The policy implementation process, a conceptual framework. Administration and Society 6(4):445–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wackernagel M, Kitzes J, Moran D, Goldfinger S, Thoman M (2006) The Ecological Footprint of cities and regions: comparing resource availability with resource demand. Environment and Urbanisation 18:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wackernagel M, Rees WE (1996) Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the earth. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, 176 ppGoogle Scholar
  95. Wates N (2000) The community planning handbook. Earthscan, London, 232 ppGoogle Scholar
  96. Weisbord M, Janoff S (2000) Future search–an action guide to finding common ground in organization and communities, 2nd edn. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, 240 ppGoogle Scholar
  97. Wheeler SM (2003) The evolution of urban form in Portland and Toronto: implications for sustainability planning. Local Environment 8:317–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilson J, Anielski M (2005) Ecological footprints of Canadian municipalities and regions: prepared for the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Anielski Management Inc., EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  99. Yencken D (2001) Scoping a metropolitan strategy. Urban Policy and Research 19:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yin RK (2003) Case study research: design and methods, 3rd edn. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 181 ppGoogle Scholar
  101. Zube EH, Brush RO, Fábos JG (eds) (1975) Landscape assessment: value, perceptions, and resources. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, 367 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment and SustainabilityRoyal Roads UniversityVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Geography and Environmental StudiesWilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations