Environmental Management

, 43:645 | Cite as

Linking Theory and Practice for Restoration of Step-Pool Streams

  • Anne Chin
  • Shannah Anderson
  • Andrew Collison
  • Barbara J. Ellis-Sugai
  • Jeffrey P. Haltiner
  • Johan B. Hogervorst
  • G. Mathias Kondolf
  • Linda S. O’Hirok
  • Alison H. Purcell
  • Ann L. Riley
  • Ellen Wohl


Step-pools sequences are increasingly used to restore stream channels. This increase corresponds to significant advances in theory for step-pools in recent years. The need for step-pools in stream restoration arises as urban development encroaches into steep terrain in response to population pressures, as stream channels in lower-gradient areas require stabilization due to hydrological alterations associated with land-use changes, and as step-pools are recognized for their potential to enhance stream habitats. Despite an increasingly voluminous literature and great demand for restoration using step-pool sequences, however, the link between theory and practice is limited. In this article, we present four unique cases of stream restoration using step-pools, including the evolution of the approaches, the project designs, and adjustments in the system following restoration. Baxter Creek in El Cerrito, California demonstrates an early application of artificial step-pools in which natural adjustments occurred toward geomorphic stability and ecological improvement. Restoration of East Alamo Creek in a large residential development near San Ramon, California illustrates an example of step-pools increasingly used in locations where such a channel form would not naturally occur. Construction of a step-pool channel in Karnowsky Creek within the Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon overcame constraints posed by access and the type and availability of materials; the placement of logs allowed natural scouring below steps. Dry Canyon Creek on the property of the Mountains Restoration Trust in Calabasas, California afforded a somewhat experimental approach to designing step-pools, allowing observation and learning in the future. These cases demonstrate how theories and relationships developed for step-pool sequences over the past two decades have been applied in real-world settings. The lessons from these examples enable us to develop considerations useful for deriving an appropriate course of design, approval, and construction of artificial step-pool systems. They also raise additional fundamental questions concerning appropriate strategies for restoration of step-pool streams. Outstanding challenges are highlighted as opportunities for continuing theoretical work.


Step-pools River restoration Environmental management Human impacts Channel design 



We thank Rune Steoresund, Kate Huxster, and Drew Goetting as well as Samantha Sellers and Eric Williams for assistance with field surveys in Baxter Creek and Dry Canyon Creek, respectively. We also thank the numerous individuals who provided insightful discussions during the course of this project. PWA acknowledges the work of Michael Burke in the step-pool design of East Alamo Creek. Cristina Alejandre and David Laurencio assisted with manuscript preparation. W. Andrew Marcus and two anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments that improved the final maunscript. This article was developed with support in part from the National Science Foundation (BCS 0620543).


  1. Abrahams AD, Li G, Atkinson JF (1995) Step-pool streams: adjustment to maximum flow resistance. Water Resources Research 31:2593–2602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashida K, Takahashi T, Sawada T (1976) Sediment yield and transport on a mountainous small watershed. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University 26:119–144 (Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  3. Ashida K, Egashira S, Ando N (1984) Generation and geometric features of step-pool bed forms. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University 27(Section B-2):341–353 (Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. Ashida K, Egashira S, Sawada T, Nishimoto N (1985) Geometric Structures of step-pool bed forms in mountain streams. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University 28(Section B-2):325–335 (Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Ashida K, Egashira S, Nishimoto N (1986) Sediment transport mechanism on step-pool bedform. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University 29(Section B-2):377–390 (Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Bernhardt ES, Palmer MA, Allan JD, Alexander G, Barnas K, Brooks S et al (2005) Synthesizing U.S. river restoration efforts. Science 38:636–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernhardt ES, Sudduth EB, Palmer MA, Allan JD, Meyer JL, Alexander G, Follastad-Shah J, Hassett B, Jenkinson R, Lave R, Rumps J, Pagano L (2007) Restoring rivers one reach at a time: results from a survey of U.S. river restoration practitioners. Restoration Ecology 15:482–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Billi P, D’Agostino V, Lenzi MA, Marchi L (1998) Bedload, slope and channel processes in a high-altitude torrent. In: Klingemann PC, Beschta RL, Komar PD, Bradley JB (eds) Gravel-bed rivers in the environment. Water Resources Publications, Highlands Ranch, CO, pp 15–38Google Scholar
  9. Boucher M (2006) Report on the December 31, 2005 Storm Update. Contra Costa Flood Control and Water Conservation District, Martinez, CA, January 31, 2006Google Scholar
  10. Buffington JM, Woodsmith RD, Booth DB, Montgomery DR (2003) Fluvial processes in Puget Sound rivers and the Pacific Northwest. In: Montgomery DR, Bolton S, Booth DB, Wall L (eds) Restoration of Puget Sound rivers. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 46–78Google Scholar
  11. Burgess SA (1985) Some effects of stream habitat improvement on the aquatic and riparian community of a small mountain stream. In: Gore JA (ed) The restoration of rivers and streams: theories and experience. Butterworth Publications, Boston, pp 223–246Google Scholar
  12. Chartrand SM, Whiting PJ (2000) Alluvial architecture in headwater streams with special emphasis on step-pool topography. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25:583–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chin A (1989) Step-pools in stream channels. Progress in Physical Geography 13:391–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chin A (1998) On the stability of step-pool mountain streams. Journal of Geology 106:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chin A (1999) The morphologic structure of step-pools in mountain streams. Geomorphology 27:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chin A (2002) The periodic nature of step-pool mountain streams. American Journal of Science 302:144–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chin A (2003) The geomorphic significance of step-pools in mountain streams. Geomorphology 55:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chin A, Gregory KJ (2001) Urbanization and adjustment of ephemeral stream channels. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91:595–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chin A, Gregory KJ (2005) Managing urban river channel adjustments. Geomorphology 69:28–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chin A, Phillips JD (2007) The self-organization of step-pools in mountain streams. Geomorphology 83:346–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chin A, Wohl E (2005) Toward a theory for step-pools in stream channels. Progress in Physical Geography 29:275–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chin A, Wohl E (2007) Mountain river channels. Geomorphology 83:197–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Church M (1992) Channel morphology and typology. In: Calow P, Petts GE (eds) The rivers handbook. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 126–143Google Scholar
  24. Church M (2002) Geomorphic thresholds in riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biology 47:541–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Church M, Zimmermann A (2007) Form and stability of step-pool channels: research progress. Water Resources Research 43:W03415, doi: 10.1029/2006WR005037
  26. Clearwater Hydrology (2006) Codornices Creek restoration (RWQCB Site 02-01-C0630): hydrologic and geomorphic monitoring—Year 3 annual report. Clearwater Hydrology. Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  27. Comiti F, Lenzi MA (2006) Dimensions of standing waves at steps in mountain rivers. Water Resources Research 42:W03411, doi: 10.1029/2004WR003898
  28. Curran JC, Wilcock PR (2005) Characteristic dimensions of the step-pool configuration: an experimental study. Water Resources Research 41:W02030, doi: 10.1029/2004WR003568
  29. Curran JC, Wilcock PR (2006) Reply to comment by Luis A. Gimenez-Curto and Miguel A. Corniero Lera on “Characteristic dimensions of the step-pool bed configuration: an experimental study.” Water Resources Research 42:W03602, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004585
  30. Curran JH, Wohl E (2003) Large woody debris and flow resistance in step-pool channels, Cascade Range, Washington. Geomorphology 51:141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. D’Agostino V, Lenzi MA, Marchi L (1994) Sediment transport and water discharge during high flows in an instrumented watershed. In: Ergenzinger P, Schmidt KH (eds) Dynamics and geomorphology of mountain rivers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Downs PW, Gregory KJ (2004) River channel management: towards sustainable catchment hydrosystems. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Downs PW, Kondolf GM (2002) Post-project appraisals in adaptive management of river channel restoration. Environmental Management 29:477–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Downs PW, Thorne CR (1998) Design principles and suitability testing for rehabilitation in a flood defence channel: the River Idle, Nottinghamshire, UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8:17–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Downs PW, Thorne CR (2000) Rehabilitation of a lowland river: reconciling flood defence with habitat diversity and geomorphological sustainability. Journal of Environmental Management 58:249–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duckson DW, Duckson LJ (2001) Channel bed steps and pool shapes along Soda Creek, Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon. Geomorphology 38:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Egashira S, Ashida K (1991) Flow resistance and sediment transportation in streams with step-bed morphology. In: Armanini A, DiSilvio G (eds) Fluvial hydraulics of mountain regions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ergenzinger P (1992) Riverbed adjustments in a step-pool system, Lainbach, Upper Bavaria. In: Billi P, Hey RD, Thorne CR, Tacconi P (eds) Dynamics of gravel-bed rivers. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 415–430Google Scholar
  39. Ergenzinger P, Schmidt KH (1990) Stochastic elements of bed load transport in a step-pool mountain river. In: Sinniger RO, Monbaron M (eds) Hydrology in mountainous regions. II. Artificial reservoirs, water and slopes. Publication 194. IAHS, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 39–46Google Scholar
  40. Gintz D, Hassan MA, Schmidt KH (1996) Frequency and magnitude of bedload transport in a mountain river. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21:433–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilbard F (2007) The restoration of Dry Canyon Creek at Headwaters Corner at Calabasas. The Mountains Experience (a newsletter of Mountains Restoration Trust) Summer 2007:6–7Google Scholar
  42. Gomi T, Sidle RC, Woodsmith RD, Bryant MD (2003) Characteristics of channel steps and reach morphology in headwater streams, southeast Alaska. Geomorphology 51:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graf WL (1996) Geomorphology and policy for restoration of impounded rivers. In: Rhoads BL, Thorn CE (eds) The scientific nature of geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 443–473Google Scholar
  44. Grant GE, Swanson FJ, Wolman MG (1990) Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102:34–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haltiner JP, Vick J (1997) Martin Canyon stream stabilization: Phase I: problem reconnaissance and conceptual plan approach. Prepared for Warmington Homes. Philip Williams and Associates, Ltd., San Francisco, CA, July 22Google Scholar
  46. Haltiner JP, Beeman C (2003) Restoring floodplain and channel functions to incised and leveed stream systems. In: Faber PM (ed) California riparian systems: processes and floodplains management, ecology and restoration, proceedings from the 2001 Riparian Habitat and Floodplains Conference, Riparian Habitat Joint Venture, Sacramento, CA, March 12–15, 2001, Pickleweed Press, Mill Valley, CA, pp 210–223Google Scholar
  47. Haltiner JP, Kondolf GM, Williams PB (1996) Restoration approaches in California. In: Brookes A, Shields FD Jr (eds) River channel restoration: Guiding principles for sustainable projects. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 291–329Google Scholar
  48. Halwas KL, Church M (2002) Channel units in small, high gradient streams on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Geomorphology 43:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harden C (2006) Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes. Geomorphology 79:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hayward JA (1980) Hydrology and stream sediments from Torlesse Stream catchment. Tussock Grasslands and Mountain Lands Institute Special Publication 17. Lincoln College, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  51. Heede BH (1981) Dynamics of selected mountain streams in the western United States of America. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 25:17–32Google Scholar
  52. Jackson CR, Sturm CA (2002) Woody debris and channel morphology in first- and second-order forested channels in Washington’s coast ranges. Water Resources Research 38(9):10.1029/2001WR001138, 16-1 to 16-14Google Scholar
  53. James LA, Marcus WA (eds) (2006) The human role in changing fluvial systems. In: Proceedings of the 37th Binghamton symposium in geomorphology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  54. Judd HE (1964) A study of bed characteristics in relation to flow in rough, high-gradient natural channels. Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University, LoganGoogle Scholar
  55. Keller EA, Melhorn WN (1978) Rhythmic spacing and origin of pools and riffles. Geological Society of America Bulletin 89:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ketcheson GL, Megahan WF (1991) Sediment tracing in step-pool granitic streams in Idaho. In: Fan SS, Kuo YH (eds) In: Proceedings of the fifth federal interagency sedimentation conference, Las Vegas. Nevada. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, pp 4-147–4-154Google Scholar
  57. Kondolf GM, Micheli ER (1995) Evaluating stream restoration projects. Environmental Management 19:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kondolf GM, Piegay H, Sear D (2003) Integrating geomorphology tools in ecological and management studies. In: Kondolf GM, Piegay H (eds) Tools in fluvial geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 633–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kondolf GM, Anderson S, Lave R, Pagano L, Merenlender A, Bernhardt ES (2007) Two decades of river restoration in California: what can we learn? Restoration Ecology 15:516–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lee AJ, Ferguson RI (2002) Velocity and flow resistance in step-pool streams. Geomorphology 46:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lenzi MA (2001) Step-pool evolution in the Rio Cordon, northeastern Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26:991–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lenzi MA (2002) Stream bed stabilization using boulder check dams that mimic step-pool morphology features in northern Italy. Geomorphology 45:243–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lenzi MA, Comiti F (2003) Local scouring and morphological adjustments in steep channels with check-dam sequences. Geomorphology 55:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lenzi MA, D’Agostino V (2000) Step-pool evolution in an alpine torrent. In: Maione U, Lehto Majoine B, Monti R (eds) New trends in water and environmental engineering for safety and life. AA. Balkema, Rotterdam, p 31Google Scholar
  65. Lenzi MA, Billi P, D’Agostino V (1997) Effects of an extremely large flood on the bed of a steep mountain stream. In: Wang SY, Langendoen EJ, Shields FD (eds) Proceedings of the conference on management of landscapes disturbed by channel incision: stabilization, rehabilitation, restoration. Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, University, MS, pp 1061–1066Google Scholar
  66. Lenzi MA, D’Agostino V, Billi P (1999) Bedload transport in the instrumented catchment of the Rio Cordon. Part I. Analysis of bedload records, conditions and threshold of bedload entrainment. Catena 36:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. MacFarlane WA, Wohl E (2003) Influence of step composition on step geometry and flow resistance in step-pool streams of the Washington Cascades. Water Resources Research 39:ESG 3-1–ESG3-13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Madej MA (2001) Development of channel organization and roughness following sediment pulses in single-thread, gravel bed rivers. Water Resources Research 37:2259–2272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marion DA, Weirich F (1999) Fine-grained bed patch response to near-bankfull flows in a step-pool channel. In: Olsen DS, Potyondy JP (eds) Wildlife hydrology. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series No. 99-3. American Water Resources Association, Bethesda, MD, pp 93–100Google Scholar
  70. Marston RA (1982) The geomorphic significance of log steps in forest streams. Association of American Geographers Annals 72:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maxwell AR, Papanicolaou AN (2001) Step-pool morphology in high-gradient streams. International Journal of Sediment Research 16:380–390Google Scholar
  72. Maxwell AR, Papanicolaou AN, Hotchkiss RH, Barber ME, Schafer J (2001) Step-pool morphology in high-gradient countersunk culverts. Transportation Research Record 1743, Paper No. 01-2304. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  73. Miller JP (1958) High mountain streams, effects of geology on channel characteristics and bed material: New Mexico State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Memoir 4. New Mexico State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, New Mexico, p 52Google Scholar
  74. Milzow C, Molnar P, McArdell BW, Burlando P (2006) Spatial organization in the step-pool structure of a steep mountain stream (Vogelbach, Switzerland). Water Resources Research 42:W04418, doi: 10.1029/2004WR003870
  75. Montgomery DR, Buffington JM (1997) Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109:596–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montgomery DR, Buffington JM, Smith RD, Schmidt KM, Pess G (1995) Pool spacing in forest channels. Water Resources Research 31:1097–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morris SE (1995) Geomorphic aspects of stream-channel restoration. Physical Geography 16:444–459Google Scholar
  78. Morris S, Moses T (1998) Channel and streambank stabilization in a steep colluvial valley, Lake Oswego, Oregon. In: Winning solutions for risky problems, Proceedings of Conference 29. Steamboat Springs: International Erosion Control Association, Steamboat Springs, NV, pp 367–371Google Scholar
  79. Newson MD, Harrison JG (1978) Channel studies in the Plynlimon experimental catchments, Report 47. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  80. Owens-Viani L (1997) Daylighting a Creek. Urban Ecologist 1:9Google Scholar
  81. Palmer M, Allan JD, Meyer J, Bernhardt ES (2007) River restoration in the twenty-First century: data and experiential knowledge to inform future efforts. Restoration Ecology 15:472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmer MA, Hart DD, Allan JD, Bernhardt E, the National River Restoration Science Synthesis Working Group (2003) Bridging engineering, ecological, and geomorphic science to enhance riverine restoration: local and national efforts. In: Proceedings, national symposium on urban and rural stream protection and restoration, EWRI World Water and Environmental Congress, Philadelphia, PA. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  83. Purcell AH (2004) A long-term post-project evaluation of an urban stream restoration project (Baxter Creek, El Cerrito, California). Water Resources Center Archives, University of California. Available from
  84. Purcell AH, Friedrich C, Resh VH (2002) An assessment of a small urban stream restoration project in northern California. Restoration Ecology 10:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. PWA (Philip Williams and Associates, Ltd.) (1999) Alamo Creek restoration: background, analysis and conceptual design. Prepared for Lennar Communities, Corte MaderaGoogle Scholar
  86. PWA (Philip Williams and Associates, Ltd.) (2001) Basis of design summary; Alamo Creek Restoration, Phase IA, Windemere Development. Prepared for Lennar Communities, PWA REF #1266. Corte MaderaGoogle Scholar
  87. Robinson KM, Rice CE, Kadavy KC (1997) Rock chutes for grade control. In: Wang SY, Langendoen EJ, Shields FD (eds) Management of landscapes disturbed by channel incision. The Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, University, MississippiGoogle Scholar
  88. Sawada T, Ashida K, Takahashi T (1983) Relationship between channel pattern and sediment transport in a steep gravel bed river. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 46(Suppl):55–66Google Scholar
  89. Scheuerlein H (1999) Morphological dynamics of step-pool systems in mountain streams and their importance for riparian ecosystems. In: Jayawardena AW, Lee JH, Wang ZY (eds) River sedimentation: theory and applications. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 205–210Google Scholar
  90. Schmidt KH (1994) River channel adjustment and sediment budget in response to a catastrophic flood event (Lainbach catchment, Southern Bavaria). In: Ergenzinger P, Schmidt KH (eds) Dynamics and geomorphology of mountain rivers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 109–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schmidt KH, Ergenzinger P (1992) Bedload entrainment, travel lengths, step lengths, rest periods—studied with passive (iron, magnetic) and active (radio) tracer techniques. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 17:147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stuve PE (1990) Spatial and temporal variation of flow resistance in an alpine river. In: Lang H, Musy A (eds) Hydrology in mountainous regions. I - Hydrological measurements; the water cycle. Publication 193. International Association of hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK, pp 307–314Google Scholar
  93. Tatsuzawa H, Hayashi H, Hasegawa K (1999) Role of heterogeneous property of bed materials in the formation of step-pool systems in mountain streams. Journal of Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering 17:37–45Google Scholar
  94. Thomas DB, Abt SR, Musseter RA, Harvey MD (2000) A design procedure for sizing step-pool structures. In: Proceedings of ASCE Joint Conference on Water Resource Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management, July 30–August 2, 2000, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  95. Thompson CJ, Croke J, Ogden R, Wallbrink P (2006) A morpho-statistical classification of mountain stream reach types in southeastern Australia. Geomorphology 81:43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Trayler CR, Wohl EE (2000) Seasonal changes in bed elevation in a step-pool channel, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 32:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. USACOE (US Army Corps of Engineers) (1991) Hydraulic design of flood control channels. Report No. EM 1110-2-1601. US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  98. Ward JV (1992) A mountain river. In: Calow P, Petts GE (eds) The rivers handbook. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 493–510Google Scholar
  99. Wilcox AC, Nelson JM, Wohl EE (2006) Flow resistance dynamics in step-pool channels: 2. Partitioning between grain, spill, and woody debris resistance. Water Resources Research 42:W05419, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004278
  100. Wilcox AC, Wohl EE (2007) Field measurements of three-dimensional hydraulics in a step-pool channel. Geomorphology 83:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wohl E (2006) Human impacts to mountain streams. Geomorphology 79:217–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wohl E, Chin A (2006) Mountain Rivers Part I: watershed scale processes and channel morphology. Geomorphology 78:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wohl EE, Grodek T (1994) Channel bed-steps along Nahal Yael, Negev Desert, Israel. Geomorphology 9:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wohl EE, Merritt DM (2005) Prediction of mountain stream morphology. Water Resources Research 41Google Scholar
  105. Wohl E, Merritt DM (2008) Reach-scale channel geometry of mountain streams. Geomorphology 93:168–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wohl EE, Thompson DM (2000) Velocity characteristics along a small step-pool channel. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25:353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wohl EE, Wilcox A (2005) Channel geometry of mountain streams in New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology 300:252–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wohl E, Madsen S, MacDonald L (1997) Characteristics of log and clast bed-steps in step-pool streams of northwestern Montana, USA. Geomorphology 20:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wohl EE, Thompson DM, Miller AJ (1999) Canyons with undulating walls. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111:949–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wohl E, Angermeier PL, Bledsoe B, Kondolf GM, MacDonnell L, Merritt DM, Palmer MA, Poff NL, Tarboton D (2005) River restoration. Water Resources Research 41:W10301, doi: 10.1029/2005WR003985
  111. Wohl E, Cooper D, Poff L, Rahel F, Staley D, Winters D (2007) Assessment of stream ecosystem function and sensitivity in the Bighorn National Forest. Environmental Management 40:284–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wooldridge CL, Hickin EJ (2002) Step-pool and cascade morphology, Mosquito Creek, British Columbia: a test of four analytical techniques. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 39:493–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zimmermann A, Church M (2001) Channel morphology, gradient stresses and bed profiles during flood in a step-pool channel. Geomorphology 40:311–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Chin
    • 1
  • Shannah Anderson
    • 2
  • Andrew Collison
    • 3
  • Barbara J. Ellis-Sugai
    • 4
  • Jeffrey P. Haltiner
    • 3
  • Johan B. Hogervorst
    • 5
  • G. Mathias Kondolf
    • 2
  • Linda S. O’Hirok
    • 6
  • Alison H. Purcell
    • 7
  • Ann L. Riley
    • 8
  • Ellen Wohl
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Geography, College of GeosciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental PlanningUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Philip Williams & Associates, Ltd.San FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Siuslaw National ForestUnited States Forest ServiceCorvallis USA
  5. 5.Willamette National Forest, United States Forest Service EugeneUSA
  6. 6.Department of Geography and Urban AnalysisCalifornia State UniversityLos AngelesUSA
  7. 7.Department of Environmental and Natural Resource SciencesHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA
  8. 8.Waterways Restoration InstituteBerkeleyUSA
  9. 9.Department of GeosciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations