Environmental Management

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 32–51 | Cite as

Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa

  • Llewellyn C. FoxcroftEmail author
  • David M. Richardson
  • John R. U. Wilson


The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed.

Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps.

Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.


Biological invasions Horticulture Invasive alien plants Human dimensions Management Naturalized plants Ornamental plants Protected areas Weed 



We thank Sandra MacFadyen for GIS assistance, Geoff Nichols, Lesley Henderson, and Guin Zambatis for assistance with the species identification and listing, and Michelle Greve for help with the nestedness analysis. We thank SANParks and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology. DMR thanks the Hans Sigrist Foundation, Switzerland, for financial support.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Llewellyn C. Foxcroft
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • David M. Richardson
    • 3
  • John R. U. Wilson
    • 3
  1. 1.SANParks, Savanna Ecological Research UnitSkukuzaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Plant Conservation Unit, Botany DepartmentUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  3. 3.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

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